the mechanisms of fluid balance in the body.
body flulid composition
the major anions and cations in the fluid compartments of the body.
the normal values for serum sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium.
the body fluid compartments
the mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte movement.
the forces creating fluid movement in capillaries, especially osmotic pressure and its relationship to plasma proteins (especially albumin).
fluid movement between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid.
the factors in the regulation of water balance.
the pathophysiology and manifestations of fluid volume deficit and fluid
- Use the
Nursing Process to plan care for the individual with fluid volume deficit
and fluid volume excess.
Care (Health Maintenance)
the relationship of sodium and volume imbalances:
signs and symptoms exhibited by a patient experiencing gains and
losses of sodium and volume.
hypernatremia, which body system is primarily affected
the effect of water gain or loss on Hgb & HCT and Specific gravity
the major functions of potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in
causes of hyper/hypo serum levels of potassium, sodium, magnesium, and
signs and symptoms of hyper/hypo serum levels of potassium, sodium ,
magnesium, and calcium.
the diagnostic tests for each electrolyte (serum electrolyte levels,
renal function, SG urine, EKG, digitalis level, CVP)
nursing diagnoses for the individual experiencing imbalances of the
collaborative care for for the individual experiencing imbalances of
the major cations.
nursing implementation for the individual experiencing imbalances of
the major cations.
the data needed to evaluate the outcomes of nursing interventions for
the individual experiencing imbalances of the major cations.
acid base regulation in the body.
the mechanism of bicarbonate as a buffer.
the role of the respiratory system in
the role of the renal system in
acid base balance.
common causes, pathophysiology, and laboratory findings.
the mechanism causing four types of acid base imbalance.
arterial blood gases to identify the four types of acid base imbalance.