Characteristics of Growth and Development

 

 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC

INFANCY (0-1 YEAR)

 

 

GROSS DEVELOPMENT

 

 

FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

0-6 MONTHS

 

Weight

(a)  birth weight doubles by 6 months.

(b)  infant gains approx. 12 lbs. per month.

Obligatory nose breathing (most infants).

Beginning signs of tooth eruption.

 

6-12 MONTHS

 

Weight

(a)  birth weight triples at the end of 1 year.

(b)  approx. weight at 1 year is 22 lbs.

(c)  infant gains 1 pound per month.

Height

(a)  most extensive growth occurs in trunk.

(b)  infant grows 2 inch per month.

(c)  total height increases by 50% at 1 year.

 

1-4 MONTHS

 

Raises head when prone.

Can sit for short periods with firm support.

Can sit with head erect.

Bounces on lap when held in standing position.

Attains complete head control.

Lifts head while lying in supine position.

Rolls from back to side.

Arms and legs assume less flexed posture.

Pre-crawling attempts.

 

4-8 MONTHS

 

No head lag when pulled to sitting.

Holds head erect continuously.

Bounces forward and backward.

Rolls from back to side.

Can sit with support for short intervals.

Lifts head from supine position.

 

8-12 MONTHS

 

Sits from standing position without help.

Can stand erect with support.

Cruises.

Stands erect erect to crawling position.

Pulls self to crawling position.

Crawls.

Walks with help.

 

1-4 MONTHS

 

Purposeful attempts to grab objects.

Follows objects from side to side.

Attempts to grasp objects but misses.

Brings objects to mouth.

Watches hands and feet.

Grasps objects with both hands.

Holds objects momentarily in hand.

Grasp reflex.

 

4-8 MONTHS

 

Grasp reflex absent.

Uses thumb and fingers for grasping.

Explores grasped objects.

Uses shoulder and hand as single unit.

Observes hands.

Picks up objects with cupped hands.

Able to hold objects in both hands simultaneously.

Transfers objects from hand to mouth.

Takes objects to mouth.

 

8-12 MONTHS

 

Releases objects with uncurled fingers.

Uses pincer grasp.

Waves with wrist.

Can locate hands for play.

Can put objects in containers.

Feeds crackers to self.

Drinks from cup with help.

Uses spoon with help.

Eats with fingers.

Holds crayons and makes marks on paper.

Drops objects for it to be picked up.

 

1 MONTH

 

Cooing

Makes vowel-like sounds

Makes whimpering sounds when upset.

Makes gurgling sounds when content.

Smiles in response to adult speech.

 

1-4 MONTHS

 

Makes sounds with smiling.

Can make vowel sounds.

Vocalizes

Babbles

Laughs

 

4-8 MONTHS

 

Increasing vocalizations, imitates.

Uses 2-syllable words (Abooboo@)

Able to form 2-vowel sounds together (Ababa@)

 

8-12 MONTHS

 

Speaks first word.

Uses sound to identify objects, persons, and activities.

Imitates wide range of word sounds.

Can say series of syllables.

Understands meaning of prohibitions such as Ano.@

Responds to own name, and those of immediate family members.

Evidences discernible inflection of words.

Three-word vocabulary.

One-word sentence.


 

PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT

INFANCY (0-1 YEAR)

 

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

(SENSORIMOTOR STAGE)

 

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

 

SOCIALIZATION DEVELOPMENT

 

ORAL STAGE

 

Body focus-mouth

Developmental task-gratification of basic needs (food warmth, and comfort) as supplied by primary caretakers.

Developmental crisis-weaning; infant is forced to give up pleasures derived from breast or bottle feedings.

Common coping skills-sucking, crying, cooing, babbling, thrashing, and other forms of behaviors in response to irritants.

Sexual needs B pleasurable body sensations are generalized, although focused on the oral needs; derives physical pleasure from holding, cuddling, rocking, and sucking.

Playing-tactile stimulation provided through care-taking activities.

 

Child learns through physical activities and sensory modalities.

 

0-1 MONTH

 

Involuntary behavior

Primarily reflexive

Autistic orientation

No concept of self or others

 

1-4 MONTHS

 

Reflexive behavior, gradually replaced by voluntary movement.

Activity centered around body.

Initial attempts to repeat and duplicate actions.

Much trail-and-error behavior.

Attempts to modify behavior to varied stimuli (sucking breast vs bottle).

Symbiotic orientation.

Unable to differentiate self from others.

Engages in activity because it is pleasurable.

 

4-8 MONTHS

 

Purposeful repetition of actions.

Emergence of goal-directed behavior.

Discriminates differences in intensity (sounds and sights).

Imitates simple actions.

Demonstrates beginnings of object permanence.

Anticipates future events (feedings).

Demonstrates awareness that self is separate from others.

 

TRUST VS MISTRUST

 

Developmental task-develop sense of trust with primary caretaker.

Developmental crisis B weaning from breast or bottle.

Play-interactions with caretakers set the basis for development of relationships later in life.

Role of parents gratify needs B infants formulate basic attitudes toward life based on experiences with parents, parents can be perceived as reliable, consistent, available, and caring (sense of trust) or as the negative counterpart (sense of mistrust).

 

STAGE OF PLAY SOLITARY

 

0-1 MONTH

 

Smiles indiscriminately.

 

1-4 MONTHS

 

Smiles at human face.

Is awake greater portion of day.

Establishes sleep-awake cycle.

Crying becomes differentiated.

Recognizes familiar and unfamiliar faces.

Prefers gazing at familiar faces.

AFreezes@ in presence of strangers.

 

4-8 MONTHS

 

Constrained in presence of strangers.

Begins to play with toys.

Fear of strangers emerges.

Easily frustrated.

Flails arms and legs when upset.

 

8-12 MONTHS

 

Plays simple games (peek a boo)

Cries when scolded.

Makes simple request with gestures.

Intense anxiety with separation.

Prefer caretaker figures.

Recognizes family members.


 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

TODDLER (1-3 YEARS)

 

GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

Weight:

(a)    toddler gains approx. 5 pounds per year.

(b)    weight gain decelerates considerably.

Teeth B first and second molars and cuspids erupt.

 

15 MONTHS

 

Walks alone with wide-base gait.

Creeps up stairs.

Can throw objects.

 

18 MONTHS

 

Walks alone with wide-base gait.

Begins to run; seldom falls.

Climbs up and down stairs.

Plays with pull-toys.

Can push light furniture around room.

Seats self on chair.

Throws ball over-hand.

 

24 MONTHS

 

Walks with a steady gait.

Runs in more controlled manner.

Walks up and down stairs using both feet on each step.

Jumps crudely.

Assists in undressing self.

Kicks ball without losing balance.

 

15 MONTHS

 

Builds tower of 2 blocks.

Opens boxes.

Pokes fingers in holes.

Uses spoon but spills contents.

Turns pages of book.

 

18 MONTHS

 

Builds tower of 3 blocks.

Scribbles in random fashion.

Drinks from cup.

 

24 MONTHS

 

Drinks from cup held in one hand.

Uses spoon without spilling.

Builds tower of 4 blocks.

Empties contents of jar.

Draws vertical line and circular shape.

 

30 MONTHS

 

Holds crayons with fingers.

Draws cross figure crudely.

Builds tower of 6 blocks.

 

36 MONTHS

 

Strings large beads.

Copies cross and circle.

Unbuttons front and side buttons.

Builds and balances 10-block tower.

 

2 YEARS

 

Has vocabulary of 300 words.

Refers to self by name.

Verbalizes need for food.

Names one color.

 

3 YEARS

 

Constantly asks questions.

Talks whether audience present or not.

Uses telegraphic speech (without prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, etc.).

Enunciates the following consonants:  d, b, t, k, and y.

Omits Aw@ from speech.

Has vocabulary of 900 words.

Uses 3 word sentences (subject-verb-object).

States own name.

Makes specific sound errors (s, sh, ch, z, th, r, and l).

Pluralize words.

Repeats phrases and words aimlessly.


 

PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TODDLER (1-3 YEARS)

 

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

(SENSORIMOTOR STAGE)

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

SOCIALIZATION DEVELOPMENT

 

ANAL STAGE

 

Body focus-anal area.

Developmental task-learning to regulate elimination of bowel and bladder.

Developmental crisis-toilet training.

Common coping skillsBtemper tantrums, negativism, playing with stool and urine, regressive behaviors such as thumb sucking, curling hair into knot, crying, irritability, and pouting.

Sexual needsBsensations of pleasure are associated with excretory functions; actively explores body.

PlayBenjoys playing with excreta as evidenced by fecal smearing.

Role of parentsBto help child achieve continence without overly strict control or over-permissiveness.

 

PREOPERATIONAL/PRECONCEPTUAL PHASE

 

Uses symbols-language

Initiative play to understand world.

Magical explanations make sense.

Frequently afraid of the dark.

 

AUTONOMY VS SHAME/DOUBT

 

Developmental task-learning to assert self in the expression of needs, desires, and wants.

Developmental crisisBtoilet training; child experiences, for the first time, social constraints on behavior by parents.

Common coping skillsBtemper tantrums, crying, physical activity, negativism, breath holding, affection seeking, play, and regression.

PlayBinitiates and seeks play opportunities and activities seeks attention from caretakers; explores body; enjoys sensations from gross and fine motor movements; plays actively with objects; learns to interact in socially approved ways.

Role of parentsBserve as socializing agents for basic rules of conduct; impose restrictions for first time on child=s behavior; direct focus from primary and immediate gratification of child=s needs.  Distant from parents though dependent.

Beginning acceptance reality vs pleasure.

 

STAGE OF PLAY PARALLEL

 

Difficulty sharing.

Plays games up-down.

Fearful of new situations.

Shows emotions, fear, anger.

Temper tantrums.

Negativism.

Toilet training.

Dress self simply.

Begins to notice sex differences.


 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

PRESCHOOLER (4-6 YEARS)

 

GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

Weight:

(a)    preschooler gains less than 2 kg (5 lb) per year.

(b)    mean weight is 18 kg. (40 lb).

Height:

(a)    he or she grows 5-7 cm (2-22 in) per year.

(b)    mean height is 108 cm (42 in).

Posture:  lordosis is no longer present.

Teeth:  preschooler is losing temporary teeth.

 

4 YEARS

 

Hops on 1 foot.

Climbs and jumps.

Throws ball overhand with proficiency.

 

5 YEARS

 

Jumps rope.

Runs with no difficulty.

Skills well.

Plays catch.

 

6 YEARS

 

Runs skillfully; can hop and skip.

Runs and plays games simultaneously.

Able to hit a nail on the head.

Begins to ride 2-wheel bicycle.

Draws a person with a body, arms, and legs.

Includes features such as mouth, eyes, nose, hair.

 

4 YEARS

 

Uses scissors.

Cuts out simple pictures.

Copies squares.

 

5 YEARS

 

Hits nail on head with hammer.

Ties laces on shoes.

Can copy some letters of alphabet.

Can print name.

 

6 YEARS

 

Able to use a fork.

Begins to use a knife with suspension.

 

4 YEARS

 

Has vocabulary of 1500 words.

Counts to three.

Narrates lengthy story.

Understands simple questions.

Understands basic cause-effect relationships of feelings.

Conversation is egocentric.

Makes specific sound errors (s, sh, ch, z, th, r and l).

Uses 4-word sentences.

 

5 YEARS

 

Has 2100 word vocabulary.

Uses 5-word sentences.

Uses prepositions and conjunctions.

Uses complete sentences.

Understands questions related to time and quantity (how much and when).

Continues specific sound errors.

Learns to participate in social conversations.

Can name days of week.

 

6 YEARS

 

Speech sound errors disappear.

Understands cause-effect relationships of physical events.

Uses language as medium of verbal exchange.

Speech resembles adult form in terms of structure.

Expands vocabulary according to environmental stimulations.


 

PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT

PRESCHOOLER (4-6 YEARS)

 

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

(SENSORIMOTOR STAGE)

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

SOCIALIZATION DEVELOPMENT

 

PHALLIC STAGE

 

Body focusBgenitals.

Developmental taskBincreased awareness of sex organs and interest in sexuality.

Developmental crisisBOedipal and Electra complexes; castration fears; fear of intrusion of body; development of prerequisites for masculine or feminine identity; identification with parent of same sex.  In families with only 1 parent, present resolution of crisis may be more difficult.

Common coping skillsBreaction formation; negative feelings toward parent of opposite sex become positive; masturbation during periods of stress and isolation from home.

TemperamentBamount of jealousy and behaviors vary according to child=s past experiences and family environment.

 

AGE-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS

 

5 yearsBdecreased sex play; is modest and evidences less exposure; interested in where babies come from; aware of adult sex organs.

6 yearsBsex play is mild; with increased exhibitionism; mutual investigation of sexes.

7 yearsBdecreased interest in sex and less exploration; increased interest in opposite sex, with beginning of girl-boy Alove@ feelings.

PlayBdramatic play in which children enact parent roles and sameBsex roles.

 

PREOPERATIONAL STAGE

 

Child progresses from sensorimotor behavior as a means of learning and interacting with the environment to the formation of symbolic thought.

1.  Develops ability to form mental representations to objects and persons.

2.  Develops concept of time.

3.  Has egocentric perspective; supplies own meaning for reality.

4.  Begins to ask questions to integrate different views.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THOUGHT

 

Animism:  belief that objects have feelings, consciousness, and thoughts as humans do.

Artificialism:  belief that a power agent (natural or supernatural) causes the occurrence of events.

Centration:  ability to focus on only 1 aspect of a situation.

Participation:  belief that events occur to meet the needs and desires of the child.

Syncretism:  uses a specific explanation for an event as an answer to describe situations that are different in nature from the original one.

Juxtaposition:  rudimentary form of association and reasoning; connects two events together, but does not imply a causal relationship.

Transductive:  rudimentary form of association and reasoning; associates non-significant facts together as a causal relationship.

Irreversibility:  cannot reverse the process of thinking; cannot backtrack through the content of thoughts from conclusion to beginning.

 

INITIATIVE VS GUILT

 

Developmental taskBdevelopment of conscience; increased awareness of self and ability to function in the world.

Developmental crisisBmodeling appropriate sex roles; learning right and wrong.

Common coping skills:

Beginning problem-solving skills.

Denial.

Reaction-formation.

Somatization (usually in gastrointestinal system).

Regression.

Displacement.

Projection.

Fantasy.

PlayBhas an active fantasy life; evidences experimentation with new skills in play; increases play activities in which child has control and uses self.

Role of parentsBsupervision and direction are accepted by 5 yr. olds; 6 yr. olds respond more slowly and negatively to parental requests and directions.  Parents are role models for the preschooler, and their attitudes have a great influence on the child=s behavior and attitudes.

PlanBprovide appropriate play activities and self-care opportunities.

 

Stage of play parallel moving toward.

Parents are most important figures.

Possessive; wants things own way.

Able to share with peers and adults.

Imitates parents and other adult roles.


 

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SCHOOL AGE CHILD

 

GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

FINE MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

Growth spurt begins.  Great variation may be normal.  Developmental charts are for reference only.  Girls may begin to develop secondary sex characteristics and begin menstruation during this stage.  Age of onset menstruation has decreased in past decade.

Weight:  gains 2-4 kg (4-7 lb) per year.

Height:  at 8 yrs. of age arms grow longer in proportion to body; height increases at age 9.

Teeth:  begins to lose baby teeth; has 10-11 permanent teeth by 8 yrs. of age and approx. 26 permanent teeth by age 12.

 

6-7 YEARS

 

Gross motor activities under control of both cognitive skills and consciousness.

 

8-10 YEARS

 

Gradual increase in rhythm, smoothness, and gracefulness of muscular movements, increased interest in perfection of physical skills, strength and endurance also increase.

 

10-12 YEARS

 

High energy level and increased direction and control of physical abilities.

 

Increased improvement of fine motor skills because of increased myelinization of central nervous system.

Improved balance and eye-hand coordination.

Able to write rather than print words by age 8.

Increased ability to express individuality and special interests such as sewing, building models, and playing musical instruments.

Exhibits fine motor skills equal to adults by 10-12 yrs. of age.

 

Medium used for verbal exchange.

Comprehension of speech may lag behind understanding.

Less egocentric in orientation; able to consider another perspective.

Understands most abstract vocabulary.

Uses all parts of speech, including adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions.

Incorporates use of compound and complex sentences.

Vocabulary reaches 50,000 words at end of this period.


 

PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT

SCHOOL AGE CHILD

 

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

(SENSORIMOTOR STAGE)

 

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

 

LATENCY STAGE

 

Body focusBsexual concerns become less conscious.

Developmental taskBgradual integration of previous sexual experiences and reactions.  In recent years, there has been increased documentation that latency is not a neutral period in the development of sexuality.

Developmental crisisBincreased reference to pre-adolescent sexual concerns, beginning at approx. 10 years of age.

Common coping skillsBnail biting, dependence, increased problem-solving skills, denial, humor, fantasy, and identification.

Parental roleBmajor role in educating child about rules and norms governing sexual behavior and sexuality and in influencing gender-specific behavior.

 

AGE-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS

 

8 yearsBhigh sexual interest; increased activities such as peeping, telling dirty jokes, and wanting more sexual information about birth and sexual love-making; girlsBincreased interest in menstruation.

9 yearsBincreased discussion with peers about sexual topics; division of sexes in play activities; relates to self to process of reproduction; self-conscious about sexual exposure; interest in dating and relationships with opposite sex in some children.

10 yearsBincreasing interest in own body and appearance; many begin to Adate@ and relate to the opposite sex in group and couple activities.

11-13 yearsBconcerns about appearance; social pressures to look thin and attractive are a source of stress; misconceptions about intercourse and pregnancy are evident in many children.

 

CONCRETE OPERATIONS 7-11 YEARS

 

Child=s thinking becomes increasingly abstract and symbolic in character.  Ability to form mental representation is aided by reliance on perceptual senses.

Weighs a variety of alternatives for finding best solutions.

Can reverse operations; can trace the sequence of events backward to beginning.

Understands concepts of past, present, and future.

Can tell time.

Can classify objects according to classes and sub-classes.

Understands the concept of height, weight, and volume.

Able to focus on more than one aspect of a situation.

 

INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY

 

Developmental taskBlearning to develop a sense of adequacy about abilities and competencies as opportunities for social interactions and learning increase; strives to achieve in school.

Developmental crisisBin danger of developing a sense of inferiority if does not feel competent in the achievement of tasks.

PlayBenjoys playing loosely structured activities with peers (e.g. baseball or 4-square); play tends to be sex-segregated; Arough and tumble@ play is characteristic of outdoor unstructured play; personal interests, activities, and hobbies develop at this age.

Role of family and parentsBparents are becoming less significant figures in terms of agents for socialization; association with peers tends to diminish the predominant effect parents have had previously; parents are still perceived and responded to as the primary adult authorities; expectations of teachers, coaches, and religious figures have significant impact on the child=s behavior.

 

 

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