Exam 1 Review

 

Chapter 1

 

  1. Who is the father of Zoology?
  2. Who was responsible for our current system of naming organisms?
  3. For the six kingdoms:  know members and major characteristics of those members (ex. Animalia ­ multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes)
  4. Name and briefly explain some of the properties of living organisms (properties that are absent in nonliving systems).
  5. How does science differ from religion or a pseudoscience (like psychology)?
  6. Describe the scientific method of the experimental sciences (observations through analysis) (good short essay).
  7. Define theory. What are the major theories that guide zoological research?
  8. Name the five kinds of biologically important organic molecules. Be able to name general functions and examples of each (chap 2).

 

Chapter 3

 

  1. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes (what types of organisms are found in each group, major differences, some similarities).
  2. Know the major functions of typical eukaryotic cell components including organelles.
  3. Define mitosis, cytokinesis, and meiosis (chap 5).
  4. What is the purpose of mitosis/cytokinesis? How does meiosis differ from mitosis with regard to daughter cell number, chromosomes, etc.?
  5. Interphase is the period between mitotic cell divisions. What is occurring during this period?
  6. Know the four stages of mitosis and the major events occurring in each stage.

 

Chapter 5

 

  1. Who was the first to formulate the principles of genetics?
  2. Define the following:  gene, allele, homologous chromosomes, sex chromosomes, autosomes, phenotype, dominant and recessive traits, homozygous and heterozygous, intermediate inheritance
  3. What are some sources of genetic variation?
  4. What is responsible for new genetic variation?

 

Chapter 6

 

  1. Define evolution.
  2. Jean Baptiste Lamarck, the first evolutionist, is famous for what hypothesis? Explain why this concept was rejected.
  3. Describe the five major components of Darwin¹s theory of evolution:  perpetual change, common descent, multiplication of species, gradualism, and natural selection.
  4. Be able to discuss the theory of natural selection (good summary of observations and inferences on page 119 ­ good short essay!).
  5. Darwin recognized the concept of homology as evidence for common descent; define homology and give an example.

 

Chapter 7

 

  1. Differentiate between sexual and asexual reproduction.
  2. What types of organisms reproduce asexually, sexually?
  3. What is the main advantage of sexual over asexual reproduction?
  4. Know these types of asexual reproduction and recognize some examples:  binary fission, multiple fission, budding, fragmentation, gemmulation.
  5. Know these types of sexual reproduction and recognize some examples:  bisexual, conjugation, hermaphroditism, parthenogenesis.

 

Chapter 8-10

 

  1. Define zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, tissues.
  2. What are the two main types of cleavage?
  3. Name the three embryonic tissue layers (germ layers).
  4. What are the four general tissue types seen in adult animals? For each general tissue type, name main function(s), characteristics, and know some specific examples.
  5. Name the traits that are used to classify animals (place them into groups that include closely related animals). What sophisticated tool is used today which makes classification more concrete?
  6. Describe the types of symmetry seen in the animal kingdom. Give examples.
  7. Define the following:  diploblastic, triploblastic, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, eucoelomate, metamerism, cephalization.
  8. List the taxonomic ranks from most inclusive to least inclusive.
  9. What is binomial nomenclature? Explain, using an example. Be able to correctly write a scientific name (species name).
  10. Define species.

 

Material below from chap 29-35 and various references

 

  1. Kingdom Animalia is the largest and most diverse kingdom of life on earth; know the following:  prevalence of invertebrates versus vertebrates, group containing half of all known species, most numerous vertebrates
  2. Describe some general animal characteristics and some features that are unique to animals (good short essay!).
  3. What organisms are thought to represent the common ancester of all animals?
  4. Be able to discuss the four basic protozoan/animal habitats and how animals have adapted to living in those habitats (good short essay!)
  5. Know the major components and functions of the organ systems found in most animals.
  6. Here are a few specific things you need to know in addition to the general stuff about organ systems:
    1. Compare hydrostatic versus rigid skeletons (exoskeleton and endoskeleton); give some examples.
    2. Define the following and describe some specializations seen in these types of feeders:  predator, herbivore, parasite, suspension feeder, filter feeder.
    3. What types of structures are used to extract oxygen from air (vertebrates, insects), water? What special structures do flying birds possess that make their respiratory systems extremely efficient?
    4. Compare open and closed circulatory systems. Which is more efficient and therefore suitable for large, active animals?