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Enlightenment & Great Awakening 7
18th Century Science, Religion & Politics
Enlightenment philosophy and Great Awakening Christianity were very different, but both influenced the American colonies and American Revolution and both frame our thinking today. The Enlightenment -- so named by its own practitioners, who didn’t lack self-esteem -- is best thought of as a continuation of the Renaissance, with a strong emphasis on the Scientific Revolution, reason and progress. Its practitioners adhered to the scientific method of testing hypotheses through rigorous, repeatable experimentation. Classical scholars first took things in this direction, and Iraqi-Egyptian Alhazen honed the method in the Middle Ages. But modern science really took off in the Renaissance when the Florentine Medicis patronized weapons research by Michelangelo and Leonardo, leading to advances in optics and physics, and alchemists helped jumpstart legitimate chemistry by trying to make synthetic gold. Then, like now, war and money spurred science, and positive ramifications spilled over into medicine, astronomy and even politics. The Age of Exploration (Chapter 1) was also key to the Scientific Revolution because it opened scientists to a global inventory of data.
By the late 17th and 18th centuries, the application of reason to the natural and social world morphed into various strands known collectively as the Age of Enlightenment. No on seems to agree exactly on what it was, and it cut a wide enough swath for some historians to blame it for slavery's justification while others credit its emphasis on equality and justice as contributing to slavery's abolition. Likewise, you could blame/credit Enlightenment science for both pollution and environmentalism to combat pollution. Enlightenment science ultimately brought us hydrogen bombs and the missiles to deliver them on; yet Enlightenment philosopher Cesare Beccaria's On Crimes and Punishment (1764) helped convince America's Founding Fathers to add the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment; torture and the death penalty are often described as "unenlightened." As we'll see below the entire Constitution is a product of the Enlightenment, as the U.S. was created by politicians swept up in the movement when it was all the rage.
Some historians claim the Enlightenment didn't exist out of one side of their mouth while criticizing it out of the other. America's founders are often criticized for failing to live to the movement's ideals, but that could only have been possible if the ideals existed in the first place. Is imperfect idealism worse then no idealism at all? Like the Renaissance and Dark Ages, the Enlightenment is one of those historical tags that lends itself to biased agenda-driven oversimplifications, highlighting some themes while concealing others. Yet, people who lived through it were aware of a new age being ushered in.
The Enlightenment concerned itself, first and foremost, with reason and logic. The Great Awakening, on the other hand, spurs less controversy among historians. It was a religious revival that gave rise to a less exclusive but equally devout form of Protestant Christianity than that of "Old Light" (Puritan) New England Calvinism. There's no debate that it happened and it's impact is fairly clear if underappreciated. Like the Enlightenment, Christianity was used both to support and denounce slavery. We'll explore the Great Awakening and American notions of religious freedom in the second half of this chapter. Together, along with the republican politics we'll discuss in the next chapter, these philosophical, religious and political movements laid the foundation for the American Revolution.
Paris was the epicenter of the Enlightenment, but its philosophes lived throughout Europe, the British Isles and small but enthusiastic outposts in colonial America. They rejected monarchs’ claim to divine right of rule, turning the traditional political model upside down and arguing that power was a privilege bestowed by the people on their rulers. They disagreed, in other words, that God chose certain people to rule over others and instead promoted representative government -- an idea had been mostly dormant in Western history since Classical times, but had been reviving in England and a few small pockets in continental Europe during the Renaissance. England's absolutist monarchy eroded in the 17th century in a series of revolutions. For University of Texas historian James Vaughan, the central idea of the Enlightenment was the notion that people were responsible for the creation of their own world..."humans working together individually and collectively to transform the world around them."¹
Along with free trade, representative government was a cornerstone of Classical liberalism. In England, physician/philosopher John Locke (left) wrote about the "natural right" to "life, liberty and estate," and helped draft the constitution for America's Carolina colony. He saw it as part of a government's social contract to secure such natural rights among men of means (Locke was a major shareholder in the Royal African slave-trading company). Other English Radical Whigs, including the anonymous author of Cato’s Letters, wrote of the "equality of all men."
British Americans carried on this republican, Radical Whig tradition in the 18th century, most famously Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence. Locke and Jefferson were concerned with the political representation of middle-class men and above, but their descendants applied democracy more broadly. You can see why Enlightenment critics see its philosophy as merely a self-serving justification for white male hegemony; yet, you can also see how its ideas contained within them the seeds of a more universal revolution. With the republican genie out of the bottle, white male elites found it increasingly difficult to explain why they should run roughshod over everyone else. That's because, by the philosophes' own standards of justice and equality, there isn't a good reason. Enlightenment political theory was also concerned with balance -- reflected in the U.S. Constitution's emphasis on checks and balances and equality among its three main branches. Politics, like science, was a vehicle for progress and making the world a better place. Philosophes had an undying faith in progress.
Religion & Science
The Enlightenment's signature religion was Deism, though there were plenty of atheist and Christian Enlightenment philosophers as well. Deists were religious but they rejected Scriptural revelation and the sovereign, father-figure model of Judeo-Christianity in favor of a more impersonal force having created the universe. Their revelation was nature itself rather than Scripture, so science provided the path to the divine. While Deism is still around today it's not widespread or very well known, partly because it never formed into an organized church. The closest it came was the Cult of the Supreme Being or Festivals of Reason during the French Revolution in the 1790s, but they never gained traction. Philosophes, after all, weren't into "cults" and most French were Catholics, not Deists.
But within Enlightenment Christianity, there was the liberal Unitarian branch (now UU) and a thread known as "natural religion" that overlapped with Deism. Charles Darwin was a natural theologian as a young man, prior to his daughter Annie's death. Science and rationality, even if combined with a dash of mysticism, gave mankind its best hope for future progress in the eyes of Deists and natural theologians. Contrary to the way they're often depicted in textbooks and dictionaries, most Deists didn't believe that God was a mere "clockmaker" who wound up the universe only to vacate the premises. Like Thomas Jefferson, many adhered to what might better be termed pantheism: belief in a divinity infusing all things. Jefferson wasn't the only Enlightenment figure difficult to categorize religiously.
The most famous and emblematic scientist of the era, Englishman Isaac Newton, was a Biblical scholar (if not orthodox Christian) and eschatologist, and had more than a passing interest in the occult. Newton built on Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler's Renaissance theories of the heliocentric, sun-centered universe and developed the theory of gravity to explain the planets' orbits. Newton was also inventor of the reflecting telescope and co-inventor of calculus along with Gottfried Leibniz. Newton formulated the general laws of motion and mechanics that dominated physics for the next centuries in Principia Mathematica (1687). His "cradle" of pendulums (above right) demonstrated the conservation of momentum and energy. His optical research led to prisms that dispersed white light into the colors of the rainbow (upper left). Newton's work was typical of how 17th and 18th-century scientists developed laws to codify nature's order in the same way the Bible provided a code for Christianity. Enlightenment philosophers had faith that scientific laws were discernible (or perceptible), and provided the foundation for laws that governed other fields like politics and economics. Put another way, there was a rhyme and reason to nature that transcended science. Politicians like Locke and Jefferson based their beliefs in concepts like natural rights on Newton's scientific principles, as did Scottish economist Adam Smith.
Enlightenment scientists' passion for categorizing, collecting and cataloging knowledge found its extreme expression in English and French modifications of the encyclopedia. Ephraim Chambers Cylopaedia (or Universal Dictionary of Arts & Sciences, 1728) and Diderot and D'Alembert's 1751 Encyclopédie (1751-, right) exceeded ancient and medieval compilations in their breadth and sophistication. The Wikipedia entries linked to terms in these chapters are modern-day manifestations of the Enlightenment, as are many of the courses one takes in school, and the way those courses are divided up into various topics and “ologies” (from the Greek logos, for study of).
Carl Linnaeus' biological taxonomy is a good Enlightenment example of an attempt at all-encompassing knowledge. The Swedish botanist took it upon himself to catalog all life forms under categories of family, genus, species, etc. While modern biologists have re-arranged his categories, his conceptualization of life forms as being related on a Tree of Life was the basis for Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection later in the 19th century. Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus, a contemporary of Linnaeus, was an early evolutionist.
Another 19th-century outgrowth of Enlightenment categorizing was the study of elements at the University of Heidelberg, in Germany. Among the students there was Russian Dmitri Mendeleev, who is credited with developing the Periodic Table of Elements familiar to anyone who's been in a lab or science classroom. The table not only lists known elements, it predicts and explains their qualities based on its particular arrangement. Like Linnaeus' taxonomy, Mendeleev's original was arranged differently than today's Periodic Table. Enlightenment scientists didn't just dig deeper into biology, chemistry and physics, they catalogued their findings so that others could challenge and build on their theories as part of a worldwide effort. If the Enlightenment had a modern creed, it might be that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, even if its proponents made plenty of their own unsubstantiated claims (e.g. Deism).
Linnaeus' Table of the Animal Kingdom, from Systema Naturae (1735) Mendeleev's Periodic Table (1869)
The Enlightenment’s main American satellite was Philadelphia, port and capital of America’s most religiously tolerant and scientifically oriented colony: Pennsylvania. “Penn’s Woods” was a relative latecomer among the colonies, but the region north of Maryland and west of the Delaware River made up for lost time by becoming one of the most important. William Penn, who had been arrested in England for practicing “Quakerism” with the Society of Friends, but whose father was a creditor of King Charles II, founded the colony after the English Civil War. Because of his family connection, Penn went from being imprisoned to being awarded a tract of land in America larger than all of England -- quite a reversal of fortune. Given Penn's noisy advocacy of religious freedom in England, it's possible that Charles II gave him land in America just to get rid of him. That way he could pay off his debt and get an agitator out of his hair at the same time.
One of Penn's trials had a lasting impact, because a jury refused to convict Penn when the Lord Mayor of London charged him with violating one of the Conventicle Acts dictating conformity to the Church of England. The judge then went after the jury, but an ensuing trial and counter-suit resulted in English judges losing their right to imprison juries for awarding what judges deemed to be incorrect verdicts. Penn thus indirectly caused a major change in legal history even before founding an important American colony.
In America, Penn turned the New England Puritan model of homogeneity inside out by inviting anyone interested to enjoy a "Holy Experiment" in religious pluralism. Pennsylvania was diverse ethnically as well as religiously. The Middle Colonies were the first to attract large numbers of non-British European settlers, including the Dutch who founded New York, Swedes who founded Delaware, and Germans and Moravians who came to Pennsylvania. Quakers were the first Christian abolitionists in America and tried to respect Indians within Penn’s borders. Indians reciprocated by not killing "Broad Brims" in battles with Whites -- a reference to the Quaker’s distinct hats.
Quakers had an influence on American history disproportionate to their small numbers. After owning slaves themselves through the mid-18th century, they spearheaded abolitionism well into the 19th century and emphasized egalitarianism. Penn advocated equality for women far ahead of his time. Quakers called everyone Mr. and Mrs. regardless of wealth, and didn't address anyone of higher rank with thee or thou. In fact, they didn't believe in rank to start with among mortals.
Pennsylvania was also home to Benjamin Franklin, who exemplified the Enlightenment spirit as well as any American. Franklin fled Puritan Boston as a teenager, finding refuge in comparatively cosmopolitan Philadelphia. He was a printer by trade, but a true polymath with multiple interests and a strong curiosity. Franklin rejected the traditional interpretation of lightning being a manifestation of God’s anger as being lazy and superstitious, choosing instead to investigate the real cause using science. He arrived at the theory of lightning being caused by electricity, and even developed a tool to control its destructive force through his modification of the lightning rod (lightning strikes were a common cause of fires and, without pressurized water hoses people had no effective means to douse fires). Franklin even hoped humans would someday be able to harness electrical energy for their own purposes, but didn’t live to see that happen.
Franklin also invented bifocals, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica, daylight savings, the post office, and theorized about how the Gulf Stream from the Caribbean warmed Europe. He pioneered demographics in his study of colonial Americans' migration patterns. Franklin asked questions and when confronted with practical problems he furthered progress by inventing new solutions. For instance, his brother's catheter was uncomfortable, so he invented a more flexible one. If that's not practical, what is? He was constantly researching and coming up with new medical ideas, some useful others less so. Franklin helped make Philadelphia the first true city in America, with a hospital, paved and lit streets, fire and police departments, and libraries. Franklin established the colonies' first volunteer fire department there in 1736.
Franklin’s Deism was typical of the Founders, as was his Enlightenment politics. Since America was born at the height of the Enlightenment, the Revolution presented its founders with an opportunity to ensconce representative government in a country starting from scratch. Through republicanism, along with its endorsement of science and technology, the Enlightenment lives on in contemporary America. While Jefferson was wrong that orthodox faiths would soon give way to Deism or Unitarianism, people of all faiths live in a technologically advancing world, and share at least some subconscious belief in the scientific method. Few among us would rush to a church instead of a hospital if injured or sick, and no one is advocating replacing First Responders with ministers on the other end of 911 calls. We drive cars and trucks and live in homes and talk on phones invented and improved on by application of the scientific method. But gone is the philosophes’ blind faith in progress as a uniformly good thing, since people today realize that science will never solve all our problems, and can even create new ones of its own like pollution, carcinogens, overpopulation and weapons of mass destruction.
As mentioned, Deists never established a formal denomination or church of their own, but some of their emphasis on Enlightenment progress made its way into the Freemasons, a fraternal society that traced its origins to stonemason guilds. The "G" in the Masonic Square & Compass symbol (left) stands for "Grand Architect of the Universe" -- a Deist way to describe God. But the Masons were, and are, an organization that includes people of many faiths, including Christianity, bound together by monotheism and a commitment to community service. Many Americans were suspicious of the organization because of their secretive meetings, rituals and codes (right), but their ranks included Founders like Franklin and George Washington and dozens of future prominent politicians, inventors, entertainers, and theologians. A cursory glance at this list makes one wonder if there aren't more famous American Masons than there are famous American non-Masons. In addition, Masonic imagery worked its way onto American currency and iconic structures like the Washington Monument and Statue of Liberty, a gift of French Masons to America to celebrate the Union's victory in the Civil War. The political structure of Masonic lodges, with their system of checks-and-balances and one-man-one vote, is similar to the U.S. Constitution -- likely because they both developed during the Enlightenment.
The Great Awakening
While Enlightenment philosophers were disproportionately represented among the Founders and in Masonic Lodges, and Enlightenment politics is built into our Constitution, few Americans were attracted to Enlightenment religion. Traditional religion or religious indifference were far more common in the 18th century among farmers, shopkeepers and slaves, and Christianity experienced revolutions of its own known collectively as the Great Awakening. Historians usually refer to the First and Second Great Awakenings in reference to big revivals in the 1730s-40's and another burst in the 1830s.
The strictness and elitism of the Puritans' Elect of God predestination-oriented Calvinism wasn’t destined to survive the 18th century in mainstream form. It was too stuffy and complicated even for New England, least of all the frontier and rest of the country. Many Americans couldn’t read let alone dive into John Calvin’s Commentaries. Puritanism was too exclusive. What was the attraction if you couldn’t prove to insiders that you, too, were among the Elect? To put it crassly, American Protestantism was in need of a little re-branding after the first few generations of Puritans had served their purpose. In New England, the key bridge between the older Calvinism and more emotional "New Light" variety was Jonathan Edwards. Edwards (right) was an intellectual who also embraced Enlightenment science, and his books and sermons are still read today at colleges and divinity schools (Yale Collection). Edwards was arguably the most influential Christian in American history.
The most popular and dynamic of the new ministers was George Whitefield, who preached throughout the colonies outside of churches, in the streets. While Ben Franklin didn't share Whitefield's religious views, he appreciated the social role of religion in supporting society's moral fabric, and published Whitefield's sermons, helping to trigger the Great Awakening. Others were less enamored, as suggested by the engraving on the left where two women named "hypocrisy" and "deceit" support Whitefield. The jester's staff and monkey in the bottom right corner indicate that the artist viewed Great Awakening ministers like showmen in a carnival.
But their theology was substantive. John Wesley, the English founder of Methodism, argued against predestination in favor of Arminianism, the idea that salvation came through good works. With its emphasis on free will and salvation, Methodism was the most popular denomination in America by 1830. Jonathan Edwards downplayed Arminianism, and promoted the Calvinist idea of salvation coming through inner reflection and God's Grace in "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God: a Sermon" (1741). The upshot was that the Fire-and-Brimstone aspect of Puritan Jeremiads lived on, but Protestant Christianity opened itself up to all comers over the 18th and 19th centuries, becoming more heartfelt and user-friendly. In the upgraded Calvinism 2.0, new converts could be saved and evangelicals carried that message to followers of new Anglo-American denominations like the Baptists, Methodists and “New-Side” Presbyterians. The Greek root of the word evangelical is connected to idea of good news, or bearer of good news.
The new faiths had a democratic or egalitarian bent, with no respect for hierarchies like the Church of England, which they viewed as Catholic Lite. Their preference, at first anyway, was for informal tent revival gatherings where swarms of people communed and shared born-again experiences similar to the Puritans’ regeneration. One camp meeting at Cane Ridge, Kentucky attracted tens of thousands of people -- a significant number given the sparse population of the frontier. The Methodists didn’t have any churches at first; their Circuit Riders rode around on horses and slept on the ground. Christianity had come a long way from the Vatican since Martin Luther first nailed 95 theses to the door of Wittenberg cathedral in 1520.
In the early 19th century, dozens more new denominations spun out of the Second Great Awakening, including the Church of Christ, Pentecostals, Disciples of Christ, Seventh-day Adventists, Cumberland Presbyterians, Millerites and, most famously, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons) – by far the most successful denomination invented in America, and the fastest growing in the world today. The Second Great Awakening reinvigorated the mainstream evangelical faiths popularized in the First Great Awakening of the 18th century.
Denominational growth in the early U.S. reflects well on the religious freedom Thomas Jefferson and James Madison ensconced in the Constitution's First Amendment -- that forbids Congress from making any "law respecting a religious establishment or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." That explains the unlikely allegiance between Baptists and the non-Christian Jefferson. Politics "makes for strange bedfellows" as the saying goes and, in the case of the Mammoth Cheese, the Baptist congregation from Cheshire, Massachusetts so appreciated President Jefferson that they sent him a block of cheese weighing 1,230 lbs. (recreation, left). Nine hundred bovines contributed to the gigantic block of coagulated milk.
Why would they send such a gift? Because, in spite of his own unorthodox faith, Jefferson's co-authorship of the First Amendment provided New England Baptists legal protection in a region where they otherwise would've been outlawed. It's safe to say that scarcely a single reader viewing this textbook espouses religious beliefs that wouldn't have been outlawed somewhere by somebody at some point in time. That's why Jefferson and Madison thought that, far from hindering religion separation of church and state would benefit religion in the long run. History provides an interesting perspective because today many people assume that supporters of church-state separation oppose religion when often they just oppose government involving itself in religion. Those are two very different things.
Today's church-state debates are a key part of our culture wars, especially those regarding the proper place of Christianity in public schools. "Separationists" argue that it has no place whatsoever, and that any inclusion violates the First Amendment rights of non-Christians or Christians who don't want the government in that part of their lives. It's simple: keep religion out of the public sphere and keep it a private affair. As Jefferson put it, his neighbor's religion neither "picked his pocket nor broke his leg." No one wants to override the First Amendment altogether, but some Christians want to partially break down the church-state barrier and argue that the Constitution doesn't actually say anything about separating church and state. They're right...at least sort of. Contrary to a popular misconception, the phrase separation of church and state isn't in the Constitution. But it does come from a very reliable and important interpreter of the First Amendment: its co-author Jefferson. Like the Cheshire cow farmers, another group of New England Baptists sent Jefferson a thank you letter for his role in establishing religious freedom. In his response, the Letter to the Danbury [Ct.] Baptists, the new president explained how the framers intended to separate church and state. While interpreting original intent of Constitutional framers is a suspect enterprise most of the time, subsequent Supreme Court justices were confident in applying the church-state separation idea because Jefferson penned it himself. Thus, you should think for yourself about the Texas State Board of Education's decree in 2010 that the First Amendment "didn't intend for separation of church and state." Here's who thinks it did: most trained judges, historians and political scientists.
Finally, what's most ironic about America's church-state separation is that it inadvertently enabled religion to infuse politics more than in most countries. Permit me to explain. All denominations and ideas were free to thrive or die out in America's free religious marketplace. The national government, at least -- and states after the 14th Amendment -- neither collected taxes for, favored nor outlawed any denomination. Diverse theologies flourished that could be widely interpreted, especially after the invention of steam-powered printing presses allowed for more sermons, pamphlets and Bibles. In that uncensored marketplace religion was (and is) used to argue both sides of political debates. For instance, Christianity was the primary ideological force behind both slavery and abolition. Liberals and conservatives employed Christianity to argue for and against Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal in the 1930s. God rewards the rich in Prosperity Gospel while Jesus favors the poor through the Social Gospel. Political scientist James Morone points out that today's evangelicals warn their flocks that to cast a "blue" (Democratic) vote would be a sin against the Almighty, while black churches bus their mostly Democratic congregations to voting booths. In the few Western countries even more religious than the U.S., such as Croatia and Ireland, virtually no one makes any connection whatsoever between religion and politics. Perhaps that's because, in the long run, moral principles don't sit well alongside the realities of political power, compromise and expediency.
While Christians and Enlightenment philosophers each had faith, the nature of their respective faiths differed. Christians emphasized faith in Scripture, while philosophes put their faith in science, nature's God and secular progress. Evangelicals and Quakers mustered a more significant challenge to slavery than their Enlightenment counterparts, despite attempts to abolish slavery in their Empire during the French Revolution. Yet, most Christians didn't challenge slavery either, at least in the 18th century. Nevertheless, Christians and philosophes both demanded religious liberty and they shared disdain for political or religious leaders who claimed superiority over others by virtue of divine right. As such, neither accepted the basic premise of why the king of England, supported by the Church of England, had any inherent right to rule over the American colonies.
One historian referred to this period in religious history as the democratization of American Christianity, implying that the increasingly democratic politics of the time paved the way for the growth of denominations. Still, it’s difficult to see which came first, the chicken or the egg, as far as democratic religion and democratic politics. Despite their different takes on reason and faith, Great Awakening Protestantism and Enlightenment politics reinforced each other as twin streams that fed into the American Revolution. Many Americans understood what Jefferson and Franklin meant when they suggested that the motto for the new country's Great Seal read: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God." It never caught on as the official motto but, in 1801, the Cheshire Baptists inscribed it in their Mammoth Cheese.
Optional Viewing: Art & Identity in the British North American Colonies (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Optional Reading: Lisa Gensel, "The Medical World of Benjamin Franklin" (Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine)
Optional Reading: Jersey Devil: The Real Story (Center for Skeptical Inquiry) -- An Interesting Side of Benjamin Franklin
Optional Reading: Jefferson's Religious Beliefs (Monticello)