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Pre-Pharmacology Exam Objectives

Allied Health Science Objectives
Based on Biology 2401/2101 and Biology 2404 for
Pre-Pharmacology Assessment Examination

  1. Compare the structure and function of different types of biomolecules:
    1. lipids:   fats (neutral fats or triglycerides), cholesterol (steroids).
    2. nucleic acids:  nucleotides, DNA, RNA
  2. Define:
    1. enzyme
    2. substrates
    3. molecules-polar vs. nonpolar
    4. atoms
    5. electrolytes
    6. solvents
    7. solutions
    8. solutes
  3. Discuss enzymes function on the human body.
  4. Describe the structure and function of the parts of eukaryotic cells: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), Golgi apparatus, lyosomes, cytoskeleton (actin fibers, microtubules, intermediate fibers), centrioles, cilia, flagella
  5. Define and describe cellular processes:
    1. Homeostasis-role of feedback mechanisms in maintaining homeostatsis
    2. Transport mechanisms-diffusion, osmosis (including the concept of tonicity, the effects of isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions on cell volume),  facilitated diffusion, active transport (solute pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis)
  6. Describe the phases and general events of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, M.  Note:  the M phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis).
  7. Describe the levels of organization in multicellular organisms (chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism).
  8. Describe the overall functions of these systems:  circulatory (blood and cardiovascular), digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, urinary, and immune (lympathic).
  9. Define hierarchy of organization and relationship between levels:  atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism.
  10. Define and be able to use the terms of body orientation and position:
    1. superior/inferior
    2. anterior/posterior
    3. medial/lateral
    4. dorsal/ventral
    5. proximal/distal
    6. superficial/deep
    7. candal
  11. Define common chemical symbols:   O, C, H, N, Ca, K, Na, Cl
  12. Define pH, acidic, basic, neutral
  13. Define resting membrane potential and Na+ and K+ association.
  14. Explain the difference between sudoriferous glands:   apocrine and eccrine
  15. Explain the function of  types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, smooth) upon stimulation.
  16. Define the neuromuscular junction and its association with skeletal muscles.
  17. Discuss actin, myosin, and sarcomere function with the anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers.
  18. Discuss the organization of the nervous system.
  19. Define function or a neuron, gap function, and synapse.
  20. Define neurotransmitter.
  21. Identify neurotransmitters.
  22. Discuss what neurotransmitter is released pre- and pat-synaptically from each nerve fiber in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
  23. Discuss an action potential.
  24. Discuss a myocardial action potential.
  25. Define the function of each cranial nerve.
  26. Identify the number of cranial and spinal nerves.
  27. Explain the differences between sensory, motor, and mixed nerves.
  28. Discuss motor output:   somatic vs. autonomic structures-structure, effector organs, afferent and efferent nerves.
  29. Discuss the divisions of ANS: Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the sympathetic nervous system
  30. Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
  31. Explain the effects of each division of the ANS on major organs (heart, blood vessels, stomach, eye, and urinary bladder).
  32. Define anatomy and function of the neuroglial cells, gray and white matter, and the meninges.
  33. Identify the location, basic structure, hormones produced and general function of the hormones secreted by each gland:
    1. hypothalamus
    2. pituitary gland
    3. thyroid gland
    4. parathyroid glands
    5. adrenal gland (by general classes)
    6. pancreatic islets
  34. Discuss the anatomical and functional relationship of the the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.
  35. Discuss the anatomical and functional relationship of hypothalamus and posterior pituitary.
  36. Define function of ADH and aldosterone in relationship with the nephron.
  37. Discuss the role of tropic hormones in controlling other endocrine glands.
  38. Discuss the flow of air through the respiratory system.
  39. Define erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets (including granulocytes and agranulocytes).
  40. Discuss functions of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
  41. Define the different types of immunity and give examples.
  42. Discuss the pathway of blood flow through the heart.
  43. Define the anatomy and function of the heart.
  44. Discuss the pacemaker of the heart and how this relates to the heart conduction system.
  45. Explain the myocardial action potential and how this relates to cardiac contraction.
  46. Explain the conduction system.
  47. Review the EKG, and each of its deflections.
  48. Review cardiac cycle and heart sounds of the heart.
  49. Define cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate.
  50. Explain the relationship between cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate.
  51. Explain Starling’s Law of the Heart.
  52. Discuss the histology of blood vessels.
  53. Describe the vasomotor control and differential distributions of blood flow.
  54. Discuss pulmonary circulation and how it relates to major arteries and veins.
  55. Discuss systemic circulation:   major arteries and veins; circle of Willis, hepatic portal system (emphasis upon the function of the hepatic portal system)
  56. Define and identify these structures:
    1. atria-right and left
    2. ventricles-right and left
    3. heart wall:   epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
    4. interventricular septum
    5. apex
  57. Discuss the lymphatic vessels and concept of lymphatic drainage area.
  58. Define lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs:  structure,  function (tonsils, spleen, lymph node, thymus gland), and location.
  59. Discuss veins and arteries with oxygen and deoxygenated blood.
  60. Discuss function of coronary arteries.
  61. Discuss the relationship of pulmonary capillaries and alveoli.
  62. Describe the GI tract:  structure and functions of organs and accessory organs.
  63. Review the digestive processes and where food absorption mainly occurs.
  64. Describe the function of digestive enzymes.
  65. Describe preload, afterload, cardial output, and stroke volume.
  66. Describe the parts of the nephron and the sequence of the structure.
  67. Review the overview of urine production:   filtration, reabsorption, secretion.
  68. Discuss the negative feedback mechanism associated with hormones.
  69. Define purpose of renin-angiotensin mechanism and role of ACE.
  70. Discuss overview of hormonal regulation of male reproduction.
  71. Discuss overview of ovarian and uterine cycle including hormonal regulation.
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