PLAB 1323/1166 Phlebotomy
CE PLAB 1023/1066
|Course Description|Course Goals|Scans|Essential Functions|Presentation
Methods|Materials Required| Materials
Requirements|Standard Precautions| Physical
||Keri Brophy-Martinez, MT(ASCP)
||Eastview Campus, Building 9000, Room 9316
Length of Lecture/Lab Component of the Program:
Clinical Component will be completed during the second 8 week semester.
Total Number of Hours: Total number of hours..............................192
Classroom hours ....................................
Laboratory ............................................. 48
MLAB 1166 Phlebotomy Practicum..........112
Classroom / Laboratory: Tuesday and Thursday
at the Eastview Campus
Lecture and Laboratory: 8:00am - 12:45pm Room
Lecture/Laboratory chedule is located at: http://www.austincc/kotrla/phb_sched.htm
Blackboard On-Line: A considerable portion of this course
will be conducted via the computer on-line Blackboard learning system. All students
will be required to have an email address (updated in Blackboard) and are expected
to use the computer to access course materials, learning activities, and exams
on-line. Students who do not have access to home computers should be prepared
to access all materials and take exams at a public computer which are readily
available in the Austin area; including those in the Learning Labs and libraries
at all ACC campuses. Before taking any on-line exams, students should verify
that the computer they are using (and its internet access) will be available
to them for the duration of the test.
I. COURSE DESCRIPTION
The profession of phlebotomy is taught through
didactic, student laboratory, and clinical experiences. The student will be
trained to perform a variety of blood collection methods using proper techniques
and precautions including: vacuum collection devices, syringes, capillary
skin puncture, butterfly needles and blood culture specimen collection on
adults, children and infants. Emphasis will be placed on infection prevention,
proper patient identification, proper labeling of specimens, and quality assurance.
Students will be taught specimen handling, processing and accessioning. Students
will learn the theory and principles of CLIA waived laboratory tests and perform
the tests in the student laboratory. The testing performed will include: manual
hematocrits, Urinalysis dipsticks, fecal occult blood, erythrocyte sedimentation
rate and pregnancy testing.
II. COURSE GOALS
Upon completion of this program the student will
- Demonstrate knowledge of the health care delivery
system and medical terminology.
- Demonstrate knowledge of infection control
- Demonstrate basic understanding of the anatomy
and physiology of body systems.
- Associate the major areas / departments of
the clinical laboratory with the laboratory tests ordered to evaluate a patients
pathologic condition / illness.
- Demonstrate understanding of the importance
of specimen collection in the overall patient care system.
- Demonstrate knowledge of collection equipment,
various types of additives used, special precautions necessary substances
and pre-analytical variables that can adversely affect the blood sample and/or
interfere in clinical analysis of blood constituents.
- Demonstrate proper techniques to perform venipuncture
and capillary puncture.
- Demonstrate knowledge of preanalytical errors
that can significantly alter results.
- Demonstrate understanding of requisitioning,
specimen transport and specimen processing.
- Demonstrate understanding of quality assurance
- Demonstrate understanding of the basic concepts
of communications, personal and patient interaction, stress management, professional
behavior and legal implications of the work environment.
III. SCANS COMPETENCIES
Recently the U.S. Department of Labor established
the Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to examine
the demands of the workplace and whether the nations students are capable
of meeting those demands. The Commission determined that todays jobs
generally require competencies in the following areas.
1. Resources: Identifies, organizes, plans,
and allocates resources
2. Interpersonal: Works with others
3. Information: Acquires and uses information
4. Systems: Understands complex interrelationships
5. Technology: Works with a variety of technologies
The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
is now requiring all degree plans in institutions of higher education incorporate
these competencies and identify to the student how theses competencies are
achieved in course objectives. In PLAB 1323/1023, Phlebotomy, examples of
SCANS competencies being incorporated are as follows:
Precautions, performs vein and capillary puncture procedures using only
necessary supplies and within a predetermined reasonable amount of time.
an understanding of the profession of Phlebotomy thorough ethical behavior
when dealing with patients and other members of the health care team,
including maintaining a professional appearance to relieve patient anxiety
and maintaining patient confidentiality.
control results for basic CLIA waived laboratory tests performed and
point out unexpected results to a supervisor.
skills to troubleshoot basic equipment or procedures that do not fall
within standards, take corrective actions or inform an appropriate supervisor.
and capillary puncture procedures using a variety of methods and equipment
including Vacutainer system, microcollection devices, Winged Infusion
Set, and Syringe and needle,
IV. METHODS OF
4. Audiovisual materials
5. Laboratory practice
6. Clinical Practice
V. MATERIALS REQUIRED
||Textbook: Garza, Diana; Becan-McBride,
Kathleen, Phlebotomy Handbook, 7th edition, 2005, Appleton-Lange.
ACC Bookstore On-line: http://austincc.bkstore.com/
||PLAB 1323/1023 Phlebotomy
Lecture/Laboratory Guide - available online through this website
||3 inch binder with dividers, preferably 7 tabs
||Sharpie permanent marker - fine point, black
Community College Photo ID
VII. MATERIALS RECOMMENDED
- Garza, Diana; Becan-McBride, Kathleen, Phlebotomy
Q & A Review, 5th edition, 2001, Prentice Hall. (ISBN: 0130887153)
- Medical Dictionary - several available to
choose from at Riverside bookstore.
- Interpretation of Laboratory Testing.
VIII. COURSE REQUIREMENTS
- Attendance Policy
Important announcements are made at the beginning of class and may not
be repeated. Regular and punctual attendance is required at all lecture
and laboratory sessions. Class roll will be taken as each student will be
required to ‘sign in’ at the beginning of the class period. A
sign-in sheet will be placed at a designated place in the classroom. Upon
entering, each student must sign / log in for themselves. If the student must
leave before the end of the class/lab, they must log themselves out. Three
(3) tardies constitute one absence. It is the student's responsibility
to sign themselves in and keep track of his/her attendance record. Each student
is responsible for all assignments, materials, examinations, etc. when absent
from the class. Planned or unavoidable absences must be explained to the instructor
on or before the day of the absence by telephone or personal visit. All missed
laboratory exercises must be completed to verify completion of the objectives,
however the amount of credit awarded will be no greater than 80%. Two
(2) or more absences, for whatever reasons may be cause to withdraw a student
from the course.
- Dress Code
Students will be expected to attend class
/ laboratory and assigned clinical sites clean and neatly dressed
in scrubs to present a professional appearance. Students not
conforming to the dress code while at clinical may be sent home at the instructor's
discretion, and will be required to make up the time. Repeat violations
will result in the student being placed on probation.
a. A laboratory coat must be worn buttoned
during all laboratory sessions. Disposable lab coats will be provided
and are NOT to be worn outside the laboratory area.
b. Appropriate footwear will be required
in the campus laboratory and clinical settings. Closed-toe shoes (no
sandals or canvas shoes) that are soft-soled, such as white leather-type
tennis or similar shoes are strongly recommended.
- Students hair must be clean, neat and
of a normal hair color. The hair must be drawn back if longer than shoulder
length or hanging in the face. Male students must either shave regularly or
if they choose to wear a mustache and/or beard, must keep em clean and well
groomed. (No five o'clock shadows.)
- Students must bathe regularly to avoid offensive
odor. In addition, students must refrain from excessive use of cologne / aftershave
lotion, or makeup.
- Keep fingernails clean and at a reasonable
length. Reasonable length is defined as 1/8" above the fingertips. Artificial
nails are NOT permitted due to infection control issues. The CDC recommended
in its hand hygiene guidelines published in Oct. 2002, that “health care personnel
should avoid wearing artificial nails and keep natural nails no longer than
one quarter of an inch long if caring for patients at high-risk of acquiring
- Jewelry should be limited to wedding rings
and a wrist watch. A conservative necklace that is kept close to the skin
(not dangling) and conservative earlobe earrings (no more than one pair) that
do not extend more than ½ inch below the earlobe are acceptable.
- Dress tactfully. Avoid wearing clothes which
are overly revealing, which may represent a safety hazard or which may be
offensive to faculty, students, patients or laboratory personnel. Scrubs are
required on campus and are the preferred attire in clinical.
- Turn pagers and cell phones
OFF or set them to MUTE. It is very disruptive
to the learning environment to have these devices go off during class. No
CD players or MP3 playsers (such as IPod) are to be used
during class and/or laboratory sessions.
- Other clothing articles, hats, etc. that may present a safety issue or be
disruptive to the learning process will not be allowed. Contact the course
instructor if uncertain about the suitability of any item taken into the lab
- Basic computer skills will be needed
to successfully complete the course. BlackBoard,
an online course delivery system, will be used for discussion, homework submission,
taking exams and quizzes, and for enhanced course activities. You can access
the site at: http://acconline.austincc.edu
, vist the "Student Guide - Getting Started with Blackboard" prior
to the first class day. Students are generally NOT uploaded into the course
until the week before classes start. Your first assignment will be to post
an introduction in the "Discussion Board" area.
- Each student must have an email account. If you do not have Internet access
at home a free email account can be obtained through Yahoo.
Yahoo accounts can be accessed from any computer connected to the Internet.
Computers for student use are located on every ACC campus. Students should
expect to conduct regular email communication with Program faculty via email.
Students are expected to check their email account at least three (3) times
a week and at least once during the weekend for important communications
- The "Environment of Care" exams (St. Davids Mandatory Education,
& Safe Environment of Care Challenge Exam) as well as the “HIPAA
Training Module“ MUST be completed prior to attending the first clinical
day. Any student not completing the training modules/exams cannot attend clinical.
The modules can be accessed from the ACC Health Science Home Page located
on the lower right side of the page at http://www.austincc.edu/health/dmt.php.
All parts of the modules must be completed as presented. After
completing the HIPAA training the student must print out, sign and submit
the “ACC Combined Confidentiality Form”.
- Completion of "Workplace Violence" module. Sign and return signature
page to instructor.
- All students accepted into the Phlebotomy Program must have completed the
immunizations required by Texas Law and have a physical examination. Print
the Health Data Form. The immunizations must be verified by a physician. The
demographic information, emergency contact, and verification of immunizations
needs to be completed to meet the requirements for the Phlebotomy program.
Go to http://www.austincc.edu/health/dmt.php
- Only students with a clear Criminal Background check as defined by the ACC
Health Science department may register for the course.
- Each ACC campus offers support services for students with documented physical
or psychological disabilities. Students with disabilities must request reasonable
accommodations through the Office for Students with Disabilities on the campus
where they expect to take the majority of their classes. Students are encouraged
to do this three weeks before the start of the semester. Please refer to the
Student Handbook at http://www.austincc.edu/handbook/
“Services for Students with Disabilities” for complete information
1. Measurement, Lecture
- Unit pretests (Exam Review Quizzes) will
be given over previously covered lecture material and the accompanying laboratory
exercises. These pretests must be taken before you take the appropriate
examination and can be accessed on-line through Blackboard. They can be
taken repeatedly and students must score of 70% on the pretest before qualifying
to take the major exam. The scores from these pretests are averaged and
worth 5% of the lecture grade.
- A minimum of four (4) written examinations
will be given over lecture material to comprehensively assess students
knowledge of concepts, principles, techniques and procedures. These examinations
will be given online through BlackBoard. Students are expected to
exhibit the highest level of ethical and honest behavior. The final
exam will be given in class. The score earned on the final exam MUST
be within 10 points of the students major exam grade average.
- A comprehensive (all units, both lecture and lab) final exam will be given
in class. The score earned on the final exam MUST be within plus or minus
5 points of the students major exam grade average. .
- Points will be awarded for completion of
assignments listed in the discussion forum of BlackBoard: http://acconline.austincc.edu
- Complete the training modules at: http://www.medtraining.org/
- Introduction to the Clinical Laboratory
- BiosafetyChemical Safety
- Electrical Safety
- Fire Safety
- Specimen Processing
- Periodic review of your course notebook divided into the following areas:
Syllabus, Schedule, Course Objectives, Lecture Guide, Laboratory Manual,
Graded Lab exercises, and Graded Study questions.
- The lecture grade is worth 2/3 of the course grade and is calculated as
1) Exam Review Quizzes 5%
2) Examinations = 45%
3) Final Exam = 40%
4) Participation in Discussion Forum = 5%
5) MTS Training Modules = 5%
2. Measurement, Laboratory
- Points are awarded for the successful completion
of laboratory exercises as related to the specific objectives for each exercise.
- Points are awarded for proper response to
study questions / written assignments required for each laboratory exercise.
- Points are awarded for the laboratory practical
at the end of the semester. The practical is the comprehensive final exam
for the laboratory component of the course.
- The laboratory grade is worth 1/3 of the course grade and is calculated
1 Laboratory exercises and Study Questions = 75%
2. Laboratory Practical Exam = 25%
3. Grading A
= 90 - 100%
B = 80 - 89%
C = 70 - 79%
D = 60 - 69%
F = 59% or below
FAILURE AND/OR DISMISSAL FROM THE PROGRAM
- A minimum grade of "C" (70%) is
required in PLAB 1323/PLAB 1023 to be allowed to register for PLAB 1166/1066
- A minimum grade of "C" (70%) is required in both the didactic
(PLAB 1323/PLAB 1023) and the clinical/practicum (PLAB 1166/PLAB 1066) courses
to be awarded the certificate of completion and be eligible to take the national
- Students must complete the required number
of hours, required number of procedures, and successfully complete all objectives
required in the clinical component.
- Students must successfully complete the classroom and clinical components
of the course to receive a certificate of completion. The awarding of the
certificate is not contingent upon a student passing any type of external
certification or licensure examination.
- Any student may be withdrawn from the program
for excessive absences (see Attendance Policy), and/or consistently failing
to meet class assignments, disruptive conduct during lecture or laboratory,
or for displaying conduct detrimental to the ethics of phlebotomy, failing
to meet minimum competency levels in the clinical component, for violating
patient confidentiality/HIPAA violations or violating policies and procedures
outlined in the ACC Student Handbook http://www.austincc.edu/handbook/policies4.htm
- Acts prohibited by the College for which discipline may be administered
include scholastic dishonesty, including but not limited to cheating on an
exam or quiz, plagiarizing, and unauthorized collaboration with another in
preparing outside work. Academic work submitted by students shall be the result
of their thought, research or self-expression. Academic work is defined as,
but not limited to tests, quizzes, whether taken electronically or on paper;
projects, either individual or group; classroom presentations, and homework.
Violation of the policy may result in probation or immediate dismissal from
the program. The Program Director and faculty will evaluate the incident and
follow the Progressive Discipline Policy established by the Health Science
- The student may utilize the "Student Complaint Procedure" in the
disposition of a grievance or complaint without fear of recrimination or retaliation.
This is found in the Student Handbook located at: http://www.austincc.edu/handbook/.
FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE
- Phlebotomy students must carry liability insurance
which will be automatically purchased as part of the payment of the registration
- Phlebotomy students must show
proof of immunization to diphtheria, rubella, tetanus and Hepatitis B prior
to attending clinical assignments. Proof of immunization or record of physician-diagnosed
illness for rubeola (measles) and mumps must be provided, documentation of
a TB test performed within the last 12 months, and immunization or
proof of immunity to Varicella (chicken pox).
- Regular and punctual attendance
on all clinical days is required. Absences or tardies from clinical
for reasons other than health or emergencies will not be tolerated, and the
student may be subject to withdrawal from the program if more than two absences
are recorded. All absences, regardless of excuse, must be made up by the student.
The student must coordinate the make-up day with the
instructor and the clinical site. The student must notify
the clinical site and the instructor of all absences or tardies as far in
advance as possible or at least within the first hour they are scheduled.
A student who is late by 5 minutes or more will be considered officially tardy.
Three official tardies will constitute one absence.
- Students are required to act in a courteous,
professional manner at all times during the clinical rotation. Any display
of unprofessional, or unethical conduct by the student may result in immediate
dismissal from the Program.
- Service Work Policy
Phlebotomy Technician students are not expected to perform service work and
are not allowed to be scheduled in place of qualified staff during the clinical
rotation. At some clinical sites students are allowed to perform with minimal
assistance, but only after
- It is the responsibility of the student to
prepare for each lecture/laboratory session. Laboratory exercises must
be read prior to attending the laboratory period to provide the student with
the basic understanding of what will be expected of him/her during the laboratory
- Each student is responsible for his/her own
work and for the cleaning up of their work station.
- Blood, urine, and other biological specimens
possibly containing pathogenic organisms will be collected and used in this
course, therefore, the following precautions must be observed:
- Eating, drinking or smoking will not be
permitted in the laboratory. Avoid putting objects in your
- Wash your hands before leaving the laboratory
for any reason. Proper hand washing is essential in preventing the acquisition
and spread of potentially harmful organisms.
a. Wet hands and apply a small amount
of an antiseptic soap.
b. Vigorously lather hands, wash well between the fingers
and up the wrists for at least 15 seconds.
c. Rinse well with a moderate stream of water in a downward motion.
d. Dry hands with a paper towel and use the towel to turn off
the faucet, do not touch the faucet with your hands.
e. Because frequent hand washing may be very damaging to the skin, frequent
application of hand lotion is encouraged.
- Disinfect work area thoroughly after each laboratory
- Cover spills with paper towels, soak thoroughly
with disinfectant and wait 15 minutes before cleaning it up.
- All accidents are to be reported immediately
to the laboratory supervisor/instructor.
Since medical history and examination cannot reliably
identify the infectivity of all patient's blood and body fluids, precautions
against exposure must be followed for all patients. The concept of Standard
Precautions (sometimes called Universal Precautions) was first introduced in
1987 by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) to decrease the
occupational risks of blood-borne diseases such as Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B to healthcare workers. The application of universal
precautions is continually evolving; all body fluids must be handled with the
same precautions as blood.
- Use barrier protection (gloves, mask, gowns,
lab coat, face shield) as necessary to prevent skin and mucous membrane contamination
with blood or other body fluids.
- Gloves must be worn
1. cuts, scratches, or other breaks in the skin are present.
2. performing phlebotomy or capillary blood collections.
3. anytime it appears that contamination of the hands may occur.
4. cuts, scratches, or other breaks in the skin are present.
5. performing phlebotomy or capillary blood collections.
6. anytime it appears that contamination of the hands may occur.
- Change gloves after each patient contact
or when visibly contaminated with blood.
- Wear a mask, eye glasses, goggles, or face
shield during procedures that are likely to generate droplets of blood or
other body fluids to prevent exposure of the mucous membranes of the mouth,
nose or eyes.
- Wear a fluid-resistant gown, apron, or other
covering when there is a potential for splashing or spraying of blood or body
fluids onto the body.
- Wash hands or other skin surfaces thoroughly
and immediately if contaminated with blood or other body fluids.
- Wash hands immediately after gloves have been
removed even when no external contamination appears to have occurred. Organisms
on the hands multiply rapidly in the warm moist environment within the glove.
- Handle laboratory instruments such as needles and scalpel
blades, with extreme caution.
- Place used needles, disposable syringes, skin
lancets, scalpel blades, and other sharp items into a puncture-resistant
biohazard container specially designed for this purpose for disposal. The
container should be located as close as possible to the work area. Phlebotomists
should carry puncture-resistant containers with them on the phlebotomy tray.
- Needles must never be recapped, purposely bent, cut,
broken, removed from disposable syringes, or otherwise manipulated by hand.
The needle safety device must be activated IMMEDIATELY upon removal of the
needle from the vein.
- Place large-bore reusable needles (bone marrow,
biopsy needles, etc.) and other reusable sharp objects into a puncture-resistant
container for transport to the reprocessing area.
- Use mouth pieces, resuscitation bags, or other
ventilation devices during emergency resuscitation procedures.
- Exudative lesions or weeping dermatitis should
be covered with an occlusive dressing to prevent contamination.
- All specimens of blood and body fluids should
be put in well-constructed containers with secure lids to prevent leaking
during transport. Care should be taken when collecting each specimen to avoid
contaminating the outside of the container and the laboratory form accompanying
- Fill evacuation tubes, vials, and bottles
by using their internal vacuum only. If a syringe is used, the fluid should
be transferred to an evacuation tube by using a safety transfer device attached
to the syringe, puncturing the tube stopper then allowing the correct
amount of fluid to flow slowly into the tube along the wall. If a safety transfer
device is not availabe the tube should not be held when puncturing
the top, place the tube in a test tube rack, Styrofoam cup or some other suitable
holder. Puncter the diaphragm of the rubber stopper and allow the vacuumof
the tube to fill the tube. Never force blood into evacuation tube by exerting
pressure on the syringe plunger.
- Decontaminate all laboratory work areas with
an appropriate chemical germicide after a spill of blood or other body fluid,
and when work activities are completed. Laboratory counter tops should be
disinfected at least once per shift.
- Rinse off all body fluids from reusable contaminated
equipment prior to reprocessing according to the institution's policies.
- Clean and decontaminate scientific equipment
that has been contaminated with blood or other body fluids before being repaired
in the laboratory or transported to the manufacturer. Always follow manufacturer's
- Pregnant laboratory workers are not thought
to be at greater risk of infection than others in the laboratory. However,
if an infection does develop during pregnancy or the mother is a carrier prior
to the pregnancy, the infant is at risk of infection by perinatal transmission.
therefore, pregnant laboratory workers should be especially aware of universal
XIII. PHYSICAL RISK STATEMENT
Students with a temporary physical problem / limitation
(i.e., broken bones, back injuries, recent surgery, etc.) may be admitted to,
or choose to continue in the Phlebotomy Program. If a student chooses to stay
in the Program, he/she understands and agrees that excessive absenteeism or
inability to perform necessary duties related to the learning objectives and
health care delivery can result in the necessity to discontinue the Program.
It is the student's responsibility to obtain, and provide to the instructor,
written permission to take part in all course functions from a physician during
the period any physical problem / limitation is present. The College is not
responsible for any exacerbation of this problem which occurs as a result of
the student's continued participation in the Program.
Interactions with clients in the health care system
carry inherent risks to both the client and caregiver, including, but not limited
to, communicable diseases. In this document, as well as in the curriculum, students
will be given information regarding known risks for various diseases and provided
skills to implement precautions appropriate to these risks. All students are
expected to provide appropriate care to all clients assigned to them in any
health care setting as a learning experience. These assignments may include
clients with medical diagnoses of tuberculosis, hepatitis, AIDS, or other infectious
Further more, the student understands that participation
in this Program exposes the student to certain risks of illness, injury or infectious
contact. The College will not be held responsible for any illness or injury,
or infectious contact which occurs during the participation in the Program.
The student's signature on the Statement of Understanding page is an acknowledgment
of this policy.
XIV. SUGGESTED AUDIOVISUAL
A. "Laboratory Safety and Infection Control"
- EVC WA 485 L123
B. "OSHA Standards on Blood-Borne Pathogens" - WA485 L123
C. "Blood Collection: The Routine Venipuncture" - EVC and CYP RM172.B56
D. "Blood Collection: The Pediatric Patient" - EVC WB381 B6552 CYP
E. "Blood Collection: Special Procedures" - EVC WB381 B6555 CYP RM172
F. "Blood Collection the Difficult Draw" 25 minutes - EVC WB 381 B6556
CYP RM172 B675
G . "Current Infection Control Guidelines for Healthcare Professionals"
- WX 167 C976, 1988.
H . " Hand washing: A Life Saving Procedure", WX 165 H2362, 1990.
I . "The Blood Borne Pathogen Standard: How it affects you, how it protects
you", WX167 B665, 1992.
J . MTS Training modules available online at: http://www.medtraining.org/