Synonym:              03089

Section:                BIOL 2421 002

Lecture: Tuesday and Thursday 8:00 A.M. - 9:50 A.M. RGC 314

Lab:       Tuesday and Thursday 10:00 A.M.–12:30 P.M. RGC 312


INSTRUCTOR:      Les Albin                       


PHONE NUMBER:  223-2066                         E-MAIL:


OFFICE HOURS:    Monday and Wednesday   10:50 A.M. – 11:50 A.M.        CYP 1064

Tuesday and Thursday     7:00 A.M. – 8:00 A.M.            RGC 342

Tuesday and Thursday     12:30 P.M. -  1:00 P.M.           RGC 342


By Appointment:

Monday and Wednesday      8:20 A.M. – 10:50 A.M.


TEXTBOOK:         Microbiology: An Introduction, Seventh Edition, by Tortora, Funke, Case


LAB MANUAL:       Explorations in Microbiology: A Discovery-Based Approach

by Hudson and Sherwood


1) CD-ROM packaged with the textbook or Study Guide for Microbiology by Funke


2) An Electronic Companion to Beginning Microbiology by Ingraham, Schaecher, & Neidhardt, published by Cogito.


3) Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 17th edition, by Benenson.



BIOL 2420 MICROBIOLOGY                        LECTURE SCHEDULE              


        1     May 27      Introduction to Microbiology                            Chapter  1


            May 29      Principles of Organic & Biochemistry                  Chapter  2


       2     June  3       Microscopy                                                Chapter  3


            June  5       Cellular Structure and Function                           Chapter  4


       3     June 10       UNIT ONE EXAM (Chapters 1-4) & (Article #1 Due)


            June 12       Microbial Metabolism                                    Chapter  5


       4      June 17       Microbial Growth                                         Chapter  6


            June 19       Control of Microbial Growth                            Chapter  7


       5     June 24       UNIT TWO EXAM (Chapters 5-7) & (Article # 2 Due)


            June 26       Microbial Genetics & Genetic Engineering              Chapters 8 & 9


       6     July  1        Classification & The Prokaryotes                       Chapters 10&11 


            July  3        The Eukaryotes                                            Chapter 12


       7     July  8        Viruses, Viroids, and Prions                              Chapter 13


            July 10       UNIT THREE EXAM (Chapters 8, 9, 11, 13), (Article #3 Due)


       8     July 15       Epidemiology & Pathogenicity                        Chapters 14 & 15


            July 17       Nonspecific Defenses & Immunity                   Chapters 16 & 17


       9     July 22       Applications of Immunology & Immune Disorders            18 & 19


            July 24       UNIT FOUR EXAM (Chapters 14-19) & (Article #4 Due)


      10     July 29       Diseases & Case Studies                                  Chapters 21-26


              July 31       Diseases & Case Studies


      11     Aug.  5       Diseases & Case Studies


            Aug.  7       Diseases & Case Studies


            Aug. 12      UNIT FIVE EXAM (Chapters 21 – 26) & Disease Reports Due



BIOL 2420 MICROBIOLOGY                        LAB SCHEDULE             

WEEK   DATE         LAB EXERCISE      LAB TOPIC                                     


       1     May 27      1                 Introduction & Microscopy Review          


            May 29      2, 5, 7           Wet Mounts, Phase Microscopy, Epifluorescence           


       2     June  3       3, 6              Streaking & Stains


            June  5       14               Staining Structures


       3     June 10       9,15             Microbe Safari & Microbial Metabolism     


            June 12       9, 15            Continue Microbe Safari & Microbial Metabolism


       4      June 17       4, 8              Control of Growth & Growth Condition


            June 19       20               Bacterial Growth


       5     June 24       23               Finding Mutants


            June 26       24               Plasmids , continue 23, Continue Mutants                    


       6     July  1        13               Fungi & Continue Mutants & Plasmids


            July  3        11C, 25         Protozoa & Restriction


       7     July  8        26               Transformation & Continue Fungi                     


            July 10       17, 37           Viruses & Microbial Resistance                        


8         July 15       18, 40           Microbe Unknown & Antigen-Antibody Reactions


            July 17       18               Continue Unknown


       9     July 22       31, 41           Normal Flora  & ELISA


            July 24       31               Continue Normal F;ora


      10     July 29       32, 33           Respiratory Pathogens & Enteric Pathogens


              July 31       33               Continue Enteric Pathogens


      11     Aug.  5       33               Continue Enteric Pathogens


            Aug.  7       33               Complete Enteric Pathogens


            Aug. 12      All Lab Work Due




BIOL 2421, MICROBIOLOGY (4-3-4), studies the characteristics and life activities of microorganisms and their interactions with their surroundings. Emphasis is placed on relationships that influence man: infection, immunity, parasitism, and control. Includes laboratory techniques. Fee: $24 Insurance: $2  Skills: E (Pass reading and writing in the TASP) Prerequisites: BIOL 1406 and CHEM 1405.



This course is taught in the classroom as a lecture/lab combination.



This course is designed for science majors who need a microbiology course for their professional preparation, usually in an area of clinical application as pharmacy, nursing, physician’s assistant, dental assistant, and others.  In addition, this course is required in the biotechnology program.  In order to enhance learning, the laboratory exercises are coordinated with lecture topics within each unit of study.  Critical thinking and problem solving skills are developed in both laboratory and lecture.



They can be found at: 

At the beginning of each unit, specific learning objectives for each chapter in that unit will be handed out by your instructor; these are more detailed that the common course objectives.



The maximum point values for the various grade components are:

Lecture                                                                                                         Point Values

Unit 1 Exam                                                                                                                120

Unit 2 Exam                                                                                                                120

Unit 3 Exam                                                                                                                120

Unit 4 Exam                                                                                                                120

          Unit 5 Requirements (Online Research)                                                                      110

Article Reviews  (4 @ 40 pts)                                                                                     160

Subtotal for Lecture                                                                                                                       750

Possible Laboratory Points                                                                                                           250


Maximum Total Points                                                                                                                                         1000


 Course grades will be determined from the total number of points accumulated by each student and will be based on percentages of maximum possible number of points as follows:


A  =  900 points or more (90% or more)

B  =  800 points - 899 points (80%-89.9%)

C  =  700 points - 799 points (70%-79.9%)

D  =  600 points - 699 points (60%-69.9%)

F  =  less than 600 points (less than 60%)


In-class exams have 50 multiple choice/matching questions worth 2 points each and at least 20 points of short essay/answer questions. Bonus points can be earned if you answer more questions than are required.  I will provide a Scantron form for the objective answers. 


Persons who receive unsatisfactory grades on scheduled in-class unit exams or miss them altogether may take an alternate essay exam for Units 1- 4.  The higher grade achieved will be used in computing the course grade.  Alternate unit exams will be administered in the RGC Testing Center and must be taken one week prior to the next scheduled in-class exam.  Alternate exams will differ significantly in both format and degree of difficulty from scheduled in-class exams; therefore, students should adequately prepare for and take all scheduled in-class exams.


Article Reviews together count more than a lecture exam.  Each student is required to read four recent (within the last year) articles related to some aspect of microbiology as diseases, microbes, immunology, etc. from scientific electronic or print periodicals (such as Science, Scientific American, National Geographic, Discover, JAMA, etc.)   

Since you choose the journal article, be sure to pick one you understand!!


This article should also be a minimum of three pages long.


The review has three parts:

1.   A complete citation of the article using any accepted referencing system as MLA, APA, etc.  I will give you examples of this prior to the first due date.

2.   An original, informative abstract of the article focusing on the major concepts,

objectives and conclusions in some detail. This is to be one paragraph of 250 – 300 words.  In order to do this adequately, the article should be a minimum of 3 pages long.

3.   An analysis of the article between 300 – 400 words will encourage you to use critical thinking skills to develop and support your personal opinions about the article. You may choose to critically analyze or question the ideas, purpose, organization or writing style of the article.  You may also consider the credibility based on the author’s credentials and accuracy of information as well as whether it is opinion or research-based and based on current information. The audience to whom you are addressing the review is a fellow microbiologist; you may also consider the relevance of the article to your audience.  Don't forget to support your opinions with examples from the article, your textbook, or current literature.

·       Turn in a copy of the article with your review.  It may be your copy with underlining, highlighting, etc.  Please do not tear out pages from magazines, but turn in the entire magazine.  The article/magazine will be returned to you with the graded review.

·       Be sure to use your OWN words when writing this paper!  Do not plagiarize.

When grading your abstract, I will expect to see quotation marks if you use the exact words of the author.  If not, you will be heavily penalized!!

·       Proofread!!  Check for correct spelling and grammar because I will, but with a penalty.

·       Do not leave each paper to the last minute.  It will be enjoyable if you are not rushed.  This is an attempt to get you to read scientific publications and be able to understand and conceptualize the main ideas of the article, since all of you intend to be professionals.

·       Papers turned in after the deadline will NOT receive full credit.  Late papers will lose 10 points for each class day late.

·       Typed papers are appreciated, but not required.




Attendance and active participation at all lecture and laboratory sessions is important! Attendance will be checked during every scheduled class period since an attendance bonus will be given for consistent lecture attendance. Each student is responsible to make up the work missed - notes, etc. - by working with a fellow student.  Please arrive on time for class; arriving late is disruptive to everyone.  If you are late to an exam, no extra time will be given. Online work must be completed on your own time if you miss class during the last month of classes.


The lecture schedule indicates chapter reading assignments in the textbook for each lecture period.  The student is expected to read the assigned material BEFORE the scheduled date, and should be prepared to discuss assigned material in class.  Answers to the Study Questions at the end of each chapter are available in the reserves at RGC LRS.  There is an accompanying site available at (see your new text for the login information.)


It is recommended that for each hour spent in lab or lecture, you plan to spend a minimum of 2 hours in preparation and study!  This is just to pass the course.  More time may be required to pass or receive a higher grade, depending on your background. 


Withdrawal is the responsibility of the student!  If you quit attending class, you must withdraw yourself or face receiving an F.  Withdrawal is done by filling out the appropriate form in the Admissions and Records Office at any campus by the appropriate date given in the College Calendar: for Spring, it is April 21, 2003.  Reinstatements will only be done in the case of college error.


Incomplete (I) grades will be given in consultation with the student and upon agreement of the instructor when extenuating circumstances have prevented the student from completing the course. In order to be considered for an "I", a student must have successfully completed a minimum of two-thirds of the work in the course.  Note that Incomplete (I) grades must be completed by approximately two weeks before the end of the next semester.  If not completed by that time, the incomplete (I) grade becomes a failing grade (F).


Statement on Scholastic Dishonesty
"Acts prohibited by the college for which discipline may be administered include scholastic dishonesty, including but not limited to, cheating on an exam or quiz, plagiarizing, and unauthorized collaboration with another in preparing outside work.  Academic work submitted by students shall be the result of their thought, research or self-expression.  Academic work is defined as, but not limited to, tests, quizzes, whether taken electronically or on paper; projects, either individual or group; classroom presentations; and homework.”
Statement on Students with Disabilities 

"Each ACC campus offers support services for students with documented physical or psychological disabilities.  Students with disabilities must request reasonable accommodations through the Office of Students with Disabilities on the campus where they expect to take the majority of their classes.  Students are encouraged to do this three weeks before the start of the semester.”


“Students who are requesting accommodation must provide the instructor with a letter of accommodation from the Office of Students with Disabilities (OSD) at the beginning of the semester.   Accommodations can only be made after the instructor receives the letter of accommodation from OSD.”


Statement on Academic Freedom
"Institutions of higher education are conducted for the common good.  The common good depends upon a search for truth and upon free expression.  In this course the professor and students shall strive to protect free inquiry and the open exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions.  Students are free to take exception to views offered in this course and to reserve judgment about debatable issues. Grades will not be affected by personal views.  With this freedom comes the responsibility of civility and a respect for a diversity of ideas and opinions.  This means that students must take turns speaking, listen to others speak without interruption, and refrain from name-calling or other personal attacks."
Statement on Lab Safety
"Health and safety are paramount values in science classrooms, laboratories and field activities.  Students are expected to learn, understand and comply with environmental, health and safety (EHS) procedures and protocols, and must agree to abide by the ACC science safety policy.  Students are expected to conduct themselves with appropriate professional behavior and with respect and courtesy to all.   Anyone who thoughtlessly or intentionally jeopardizes the health or safety of another individual will be immediately dismissed from the day’s activity, may be withdrawn from the class, and/or barred from attending all activities. Specific safety information for each activity will be discussed at the beginning of the activity.  For those activities that require specific safety training, a student who is late and misses the safety training will not be able to participate in the activity.  The comprehensive science safety policy can be found at:
Open lab hours will be available for microbiology students in RGC 312.  These times will be posted outside the classroom door and will be staffed by a lab assistant.


Both lecture and lab syllabi contain a course schedule. “Please note:  schedule changes may occur during the semester.  Any changes will be announced in class.”



ACC Testing Center policies can be found at:



The web address for student services is:

The ACC student handbook can be found at:



The web address is:,

then click on “Campus Based Student Support Overview”.




BIOL 2421                                                       Microbiology


LAB MANUAL: Explorations in Microbiology: A Discovery-Based Approach  

                                                      By Hudson and Sherwood


Laboratory is an important and integral part of your education in microbiology. During laboratory, you will learn microbiological techniques, collect data, and apply these techniques and data collection procedures to identify unknowns and design experiments. Some techniques are unique to microbiology, as staining procedures and microscopic techniques. However, most of the techniques are useful throughout biology and in biotechnology.  Bacteria and yeast are frequently used in recombinant DNA methodologies. Pipetting and dilutions are important techniques in many science laboratories. These techniques and many others will be learned/reviewed this semester using microbes.


Exercises will NOT be performed in the order listed in the laboratory manual. This is because experiments will be done with topics concurrently being covered in lecture. So take careful notice of what will be done on a given day. You are responsible for reading the exercises ahead of time, including the “case study” at the beginning of the exercise to help you understand the practical importance of the exercises. Case studies will be used throughout the course.


Grading for lab is based on 250 possible points, which will be added to the points earned in lecture to determine the final course grade. There is NO laboratory practical! Laboratory grading is done in many small parts. There are four grading categories, detailed on the Laboratory Grade Sheet.


       1. Completing the Results and Reflections at the end of each exercise we perform except 9, 18, 32 and 33. Since 22 exercises will require completion of these R&R at 5 points each, this counts 110 points toward the laboratory grade.


       2. Several exercises require a separate Laboratory Report because experiments will be designed and carried out by student groups. These are Exercises 9, 8, and 31 only. This counts 50 points toward your laboratory grade. This is a standard report format used in science laboratories and is detailed in Appendix B. Grading rubrics will be given to assist you.


       3. Assessing various techniques and their applications through graphs, unknowns, flowcharts, and case presentations will count 76 points toward your laboratory grade.


       4. The remaining 14 points will be used to reward students who submit their laboratory materials in a timely manner.


Attendance for lab is mandatory.  Your performance will be directly related to the punctuality and consistency of your attendance.  The discovery-based approach will encourage you to think for yourself, do for yourself, take the initiative, and be responsible for your actions.  Planning ahead (read the exercises before class), working efficiently, and thinking about what you will do before doing it will pay great dividends. Don't be bashful; cooperate and do your share of work with groups; do your own work on individual tasks; and don't be afraid to ask questions.  This lab is designed to help you learn and HAVE FUN, too.


Because we will be working with large numbers of microbes from all types of sources, Laboratory Safety will be stressed throughout the semester.  Consistent regulations are in place for ALL Biology and Chemistry labs at ACC.




Each student should purchase these supplies for the laboratory:


1.       1 1/2 inch plastic ring binder with inside pockets for your syllabus


         2.       Safety (ANSI Z87.1)  glasses or goggles


3.       A lab coat or old shirt may be used to protect clothing from stains and spilled laboratory materials.





Since the laboratory manual has tear-out pages, you will not be able to sell it back if you tear them out.  Thus if you plan to resell it, make copies for pages going into your notebook.


Organize your laboratory notebook as follows:

1.       Title page

2.              Safety Information

3.              Laboratory Grade Sheet

4.              Laboratory data –-Results and Reflections (R&R) of each exercise or Laboratory Report-- in the order they are performed according to your syllabus.


This laboratory notebook should become part of your portfolio, so make it neat.


NOTE:  The required laboratory data (either R&R’s or formal report) will be due one week following completion of the exercise.



BIOL 2421  Laboratory Grade Sheet                         NAME _______________________________



On Time?

R & R @ 5


Total Score

Safety Info



Signed sheet




















 Streak - 5





Gram – 5










AF – 5





Report – 20










Graphs - 3





Report - 15










Graphs - 2





Graph - 1















Graphs - 1















? Microbe  & flowcharts-15





Report - 15















Ag-Ab - 5





Resp. cases - 12





Enteric cases  - 12


















Rubric for Grading Each R & R


Points Awarded

Description of Work

5 points

¨     All required results are indicated and questions reasonably answered.

¨     All drawings properly labeled, colored, and clearly represent the specimens observed.

¨     All tables are legible and symbols clearly defined.

¨     All graphs are legible with axes clearly defined.

¨     Ideas are clearly and thoroughly expressed.

4 points

¨     One component of data not given in Results section OR one component of questions not answered.

¨     All results are indicated and all questions are answered, but 1 or 2 minor aspects of the drawings, tables, etc. are not of the highest quality.

3 points

¨     All results are indicated and all questions are answered, but 1 or 2 major aspects of the drawings, tables, etc. are not of the highest quality.

¨     Two components of data not given in Results section OR two components of questions not answered.

2 points

¨     All results are indicated and all questions are answered, but 3 or 4 major aspects of the drawings, tables, etc. are not of the highest quality.

¨     Three components of data not given in Results section OR three components of questions not answered.

1 point

¨     Four or more required parts are either not answered or not reasonably answered.



Rubric for Timeliness


14 points

All results/reports turned in on time

11 points

1- 3 are turned in late

8 points

4 - 6 are turned in late

5 points

7 - 10 are turned in late

2 points

11 - 14 are turned in late

0 points

 15 or more are turned in late




Common Course Objectives for BIOL 2421 (Microbiology)


Introduction:  This course is designed for science majors who need a microbiology course for their professional preparation, usually in an area of clinical application as pharmacy, nursing, physician’s assistant, dental assistant, and others. In addition, this course is required in the biotechnology program. In order to enhance learning, the laboratory exercises are coordinated with lecture topics within each unit of study. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are developed in both laboratory and lecture.




1.     Understand and comply with laboratory safety rules and procedures, especially the constant use of aseptic technique and the proper handling of biohazards.

2.     Successfully perform the following techniques:  aseptic transfer; streak and spread plates for isolation of microbes; maintenance of pure cultures, using colony morphology to aid in microbial identification; simple, differential, and special stains; serological, metabolic and biochemical characterization of microbes; molecular techniques as gel electrophoresis, transformation, restriction digest, etc. as performed in the laboratory.

3.     Become proficient with the light microscope by using wet mounts and stained smears to differentiate among and between eucaryotic and procaryotic microbes. Use phase, fluorescence and  brightfield microscopy.

4.     Become proficient at characterizing “unknown” microbes by both microscopic and macroscopic techniques and by preparing and using dichotomous keys.

5.     Become familiar with  procedures for performing and reporting laboratory experiments.

6.     Culture microbes on various media, observing their growth characteristics and factors affecting their growth.




1.     Develop and use critical thinking and problem solving skills through the use of case studies and reviews of scientific literature.

2.     Describe the historical perspectives important in the development of microbiology and the current diversity in the field to include the germ theory and the microbes being studied.

3.     Understand atomic structure and how atoms interact to form molecules.

4.     Compare and contrast organic and inorganic compounds and their properties.

5.     Compare and contrast the molecular characteristics and functions of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and lipids.

6.     Fully describe the compound light microscope; compare and contrast brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopes and their uses.

7.     Compare and contrast light and electron microscopy; compare and contrast the uses and functions of scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

8.     Compare and contrast the procedures for observing living and dead microbes; compare and contrast simple, differential and special stains and their purposes.

9.     Explain the purpose of each Gram reagent and why Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria can be distinguished by the procedure.

10.  Compare and contrast eucaryotic and procaryotic cells and their specific structures with functions.

11.  Compare and contrast Whittaker’s kingdom with Woese’s domain system of classification.

12.  Fully describe enzymes, their nomenclature, structure, and functions.

13.  Fully describe metabolism; compare and contrast anabolism and catabolism.

14.  Compare and contrast oxidation and reduction; explain its role in metabolism.

15.  Describe ATP, its role in cellular energy and its production by phosphorylation.

16.  Compare and contrast respiration and fermentation as catabolic pathways.

17.  Compare and contrast the pathways used during aerobic and anaerobic respiration; include energy yield, using examples.

18.  Describe examples of fermentation, particularly those of industrial importance.

19.  Compare and contrast microbial growth by temperature range,  pH, oxygen, and osmotic pressure requirements.

20.  Compare and contrast chemical (nutritional) requirements to include CHONPS, trace elements, and organic growth factors.

21.  Compare and contrast complex and chemically defined media, using examples of media recipes.

22.  Compare and contrast the use of special media and culture techniques for growing microbes.

23.  Describe binary fission and the bacterial growth curve and their relationship to generation time.

24.  Compare and contrast direct and indirect measures of microbial growth.

25.  Compare and contrast terms related to destruction or suppression of microbial growth.

26.  Compare and contrast major physical and chemical methods for controlling microbial growth, how they control, and their relative effectiveness.

27.  Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA.

28.  Compare and contrast in detail the processes of replication, transcription and translation.

29.  Discuss the regulation of gene expression in bacteria using the operon model.

30.  Define mutation; compare and contrast the types of mutations, their possible effects on a microbe and how mutants can be detected. 

31.  Compare and contrast physical, chemical, and biological mutagens and their effects.

32.  Compare and contrast methods of genetic transfer and recombination in bacteria.

33.  Compare and contrast tools and techniques used in biotechnology, including recombinant DNA technologies, PCR, clonal selection, and therapeutic, agricultural and scientific applications.

34.  Describe the use of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and its criteria for the taxonomy of procaryotes, using medically important examples.

35.  Compare and contrast the major groups of fungi, protozoa, and helminths by their defining characteristics, giving examples of each.

36.  Compare and contrast various arthropod vectors, giving examples of diseases they transmit.

37.  Describe the architecture, chemical composition, cultivation and classification of viruses.

38.  Compare and contrast the lytic and lysogenic cycles and explain their importance; include latency.

39.  Describe various cytopathic effects of viruses, including tumors and cancers caused by viruses.

40.  Compare and contrast replication between animal viruses and the T4 phage.

41.  Define the terms necessary to understand disease principles and epidemiology:  normal and transient flora, opportunists, pathogen, infection, disease, virulence and its measures, etiology, nosocomial, epidemic, endemic, pandemic, portals of entry and exit, types of symbiosis, predisposing factors, morbidity and mortality.

42.  Compare and contrast living and nonliving reservoirs, using examples.

43.  Compare and contrast disease transmission, using examples:  contact, vehicle, and vector.

44.  Compare and contrast the stages of disease development:  incubation, prodrome, illness, decline and convalescence.

45.  Define CDC and explain how it protects the public health.

46.  Compare and contrast native (innate) and acquired immunity; using examples, include active vs passive and natural vs artificial immunity.

47.  Compare and contrast microbial pathogenesis of specific invasive factors and toxins (endo- and exotoxins) with other mechanisms by which microbes cause disease.

48.  Compare and contrast the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms protecting the host by nonspecific surface defense (skin and mucosa).

49.  Compare and contrast blood and tissue processes and factors protecting the host in the nonspecific interior defense.

50.  Compare and contrast in detail the workings of humoral and cellular immunity protecting the host during specific defense.

51.  Compare and contrast various serological techniques and how they can be used to determine one’s immunological status and diagnose diseases.

52.  Compare and contrast the immunizing agents for disease prevention and explain how vaccination works, using examples.

53.  Compare and contrast immediate and delayed hypersensitivity (allergy), using examples.

54.  Compare and contrast autoimmune diseases and immune deficiencies, using examples.

55.  Compare and contrast the immune response to tumors and cancer with that to transplants (grafts), using examples.

56.  Be able to effectively use a computer and Internet browser to find infectious diseases information for writing a disease report and solving a case study.