THE ONLINE STUDY SESSION IS NOW CLOSED. I HOPE YOU ALL FOUND IT HELPFUL! YOU CAN FIND THE QUESTIONS FROM IT HERE.
This page is devoted to class questions and my answers to them. Since very often, many people have the same questions, I think it is helpful to give our entire class access to all the questions that are asked. When you have class questions, check here and check the syllabus. If you find your answer, GREAT! If not, please do one of these four things:
If you email me your question, I'll respond directly to you and post your questions on this board.
If for some reason, you do NOT want me to post your question to the class (if it is of a personal nature or for any other reason) let me know, and I'll only respond to you.
Exam 1 Material
I'm a strong believer in team effort, and one of the best ways to study would be with a friend from class. I'd suggest that each member of a study group should write a few "sample" questions for each lecture and then see if the other members of the group can answer them properly. For examples of the types of questions I write, see the exams page.
Some other places to look for sample questions are: our text's web page (look under the chapter you want to practice with and go to "sample essay questions"). Also, the author of our text has a nice web page for another text she wrote on lifespan development. Since both books have a lot of the same material in the early chapters, you could test yourself using the online quizzes provided on that text's web page, which can be found here.
From Fall 1999 Study Session:
Sing to the tune of supercalifragilisticexpiallydocious:
T-A-I, I-E-I, G-I ally docious
T-A-I, I-E-I, G-I ally docious
T-A-I, I-E-I, G-I ally docious
T-A-I, I-E-I, G-I ally docious
The letters are for: T-rust vs. Mistrust, A-utonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, I-nitiative vs. Guilt, I-ndustry vs. Inferiority, E-go Identity vs. Role Confusion, I-ntimacy vs. Isolation, G-enerativity vs. Stagnation, and I-ntegrity vs. Despair.
So, mitosis is normal cell division. We start with a diploid cell, and it replicates all the chromosomes and splits in two, so we end up with TWO cells, each of which are diploid at the end.
On the other hand, meiosis is cell division that creates gametes. So, we start with a diploid cell, and it replicates once and divides twice, so that we wind up with FOUR cells, each of which are haploid at the end. So, meiosis leaves us with FOUR gametes.
I hope this helps fill in your notes, let me know if you need more clarification!
As far as knowing the strengths and weaknesses, these can be personal judgements. I won't test you on the quality of your judgements, but I do want to know that you have some feelings about why theories are useful or not!
Think about the little "taco" we made in class - and where each layer was...
With X linked inheritance, and a male, since they only have one X chromosome, if it is affected, it acts as though there is a homozygous recessive situation, and if it is not affected, it acts as though there is a homozygous dominant situtation, but truly, you can't speak in terms of homo or hetero, in a male, since there is only one allele possible. Of course, with regular dominant recessive inheritance, the sex chromosomes don't matter, and males and females can be either homo or hetero. Hope this makes sense!
a) high / low
b) valid / reliable
c) low / high
d) high / high
This question is simply checking to see if you understand what a positive (meaning above zero) value of a correlation coefficient means. Positive correlations mean that as one value increases, the other value also increases (or that as one decreases, the other decreases). So, for this question, the only possible answer is d, high/high, because it is the only one that demonstrates that both variables are changing in the same direction. Please let me know if you need more clarification!
differentiation - when the dividing cells begin to take on different jobs - certain cells destined to become the baby become different than those destined to become the umbilical cord or placenta. Most importantly, not all cells are exactly the same anymore. Each one has a different job, and knows it.
Implantation - when the zygote finds a spot in the uterine lining, and attaches to it. this is the end of the period of the zygote.
As for organismic vs. mechanistic, here we are examining the possibility that we develop mostly due to internal pressures and controls (organismic) or due to external pressures and controls (mechanistic). If I believe in organismic development, I believe that people can become more intellingent if they study and learn good habits, if I believe in mechanistic development, I believe that people will only become more intelligent if their environment allows them to. Let me know if you need more clarification.
8yr 11yr 14yr
11yr 14yr 17yr
what does this mean exactly...i mean what sets this appart from the longitudinal approach other than the fact that it has more groups?
Psychoanalytic - Freud and Erikson - NURTURE - they both say that what our parents do to us affects us. Sexual Stages - DEFINITELY discontinuous. For Freud I'd go more mechanistic, as he talks about what our moms do to us, making us largely irresponsible, but I can see your internal pressures argument as well.
It sounds as if you are doing a great job, but remember, you really should focus on lecture stuff.
diploid - the full genetic compliment. For humans, this is 23 PAIRS of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes. All body cells are of this type.
Mitosis starts with one diploid cell, and ends with two diploid cells.
Meiosis starts with one diploid cell, and ends with four haploid cells. Meiosis is the way sperm and eggs are created.
The weird numbers, 12 and 6 were from an example to show how meiosis and mitosis could work in some random made up animal. if a diploid cell for this animal has 12 chromosomes, haploid would have 6, and so mitosis would start with one 12 chrom cell, and end with two 12 chrom cells. Meiosis would start with one 12 chrom cell and end with four 6 chrom cells.
Continuity - development is mostly a change in quantity. Things get bigger or better, with no real changes. Discontinuity - development is a series of big earth-shaking changes. An adult may look nothing like the baby that s/he started out as.
Correlational studies are used to determine if there is a relationship between variables. Since this type of study just looks at two variables and how they vary together, we can't say that one variable caused the other. We can however, look at trends between variables.
The thumb test is simply the trick I taught our class to understand the correlational coefficient. It will be a positive value if, when one variable increases, the other does too (or if both decrease). The way to use the thumb test is to recognize that if both thumbs are going in the same direction, the coefficient is positive. It will be negative if as one variable goes up, the other goes down, which will be demonstrated by the thumbs going in the opposite direction. Let me know if you need more help.
Laura is 16 and is pregnant. She is unmarried and her parents are FURIOUS. Plot her along the adequacy/vulnerability and shame/solicitude dimensions we discussed in class. Additionally, come up with another pregnant woman who would fall in a different spot. Describe her, and explain why she would fall into a different location on the graph. Finally, plot the second mother on the graph.
As for your second question, both -.9 and +.9 are STRONG correlations (because of how close each number is to 1 (or -1). However, the negative correlation indicates that the two variables vary in opposition to one another. Like the # of beers drunk night before SAT example, the positive correlation on the other hand, shows that both variables are varying in the same direction. So, this is more like the # of years of dating vs. marriage success example.
You are correct in stating that there weren't any short answer examples on the sample test. It is just a short intro into my multiple choice style. See the question above for a sample short answer question.
As for the second, I mentioned in class that I gave the specific times of contractions to illustrate the changing nature of labor. I want you to get that with each stage, the contractions are longer, and the time between them is shorter. It is also good to know which phases are the longest, but I certainly don't expect you to know the minute details.
In terms of what to focus on, again, remember the exam is 70% from lecture, so you should focus on that. Only BIG issues from the text. The stuff that is reviewed at each chapter's end. Lastly, s/a questions are likely to come from material that you saw in group activities or at least large examples in class.
As for naturalistic observation, it is done by watching in a natural environment. So the above study, I would use questionnaires, and it is not simply observation because I'm not studying people where they live and work. Naturalistic observations may not be classical experiments - they can be correlational studies instead. Let me know if this is enough info!
Organismic - I am a psychologist because I like people, and I made a career selection that fits my goals for myself. Mechanistic - I am a psychologist because I was exposed to good professors and thye guided me into this career.
Tell me if you need a few more!
Can I say that it involves all three domains: "biosocial"; "cognitive" and "psychosocial" domain?
So, for another example, mechanistic - people with low SES (see text if you don't recognize this term) are destined to have lower educational levels and higher criminality levels. organismic - people with low SES can educate themselves and avoid becoming criminals.
Please do remind me about the examples, and I'll be sure to put them up!
Mechanistic, on the other hand, is the train of thought that says we will become what we will become but we don't have much control. The environment and our genes will determine how we develop, but we don't make decisions. So, a mechanistic approach would say that a child who has an alcoholic parent will become an alcoholic because they see it in the environment, and they have it in their genes. It is inescapable, there is nothing they can do to avoid it.
X X would be Homozygous - Recessive - Affected
X X would be heterozygous - carrier
X X would be homozygous - not affect
X y would be homozygous - affected
X y would be homozygous - not affected
Wouldn't the last two (the male) by definition be heterozygous?
If you are asked what happens when two cells undergo mitosis, if each diploid cell has 8 pairs of chromosomes, you don't even need to worry about the haploid condition. In mitosis, 1 diploid cell becomes two diploid cells - chromosome number is maintained. So here, you'd wind up with 4 cells, each with 8 pairs of chromosomes.
My question: Will someone look at all three questions in a child, or find that only one of the six possibilities will fit? Or will one category in each question fit (and have three descriptions)?
PSYC 2309 - Spring 2008 - ONLINE STUDY SESSION
Ex: Like organogenesis, it spans over several weeks, And the age of viability, is between 22-26 weeks, so which do you go with?
Am getting far more complex than I need to?
It is most important to know the big hallmarks that we talked about. I don't expect you to know exactly what is happening day by day.
In other words is there a time that a medication can affect the conceptus in a way that it will pass that affect down to it's descendants.
Also, I have the example of blindness from syphilis and, the medication example for teratogens, but I do not have an example for a mutagens. Do you have any?
As for an example of a mutagen, the one I gave in class was xrays, but other forms of radiation can also cause mutations. For instance, Chernobyl resulted in mutagenic effects.
So in any meiosis question, you'll go from X number of paired chromosomes, to X number of single chromosomes, and from 1 cell to 4. Or, if you are talking about total number of chromosomes (not pairs) you'd go from 1 cell with X chromosomes to 4 cells with X/2 chromosomes.
So, if you have a critter with normal diploid cells that have 9 pairs of chromosomes, one cell undergoing meiosis would become 4 haploid cells, each with 9 chromosomes. If I got nasty and asked what happened with a critter with diploid cells that have 12 chromosomes, you would have to say that they wind up 4 cells with 6 chromosomes each.
To check your work, take the chromosomes you've said will be in one resultant cell from meiosis, and double them (as in conception) the number you get should be the number in the normal diploid cell.
Exam 2 Material
Remember in class that I said that we each need to come up with something that works for us when we have to learn a difficult concept. I'll try to frame the IV - DV distinction in a couple of different ways here, and then I'll put some sample experiments on the handouts page. If you are having trouble with this area, use the sample experiments to test yourself. I'll put the answers up on a separate handout.
Ok, first, think about a general experiment. The researcher wants to find out what happens when s/he manipulates some variable. THE VARIABLE S/HE MANIPULATES IS THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. What happens when the researcher manipulates the independent variable is that the dependent variable is somehow changed. Remember though, that the researcher can't actually change or manipulate the DV directly - so it is the dependent variable that is changed (not by the researcher) but by the independent variable.
So, when I say I'm interested in learning how using a web page affects the grades of students in a class, (think about this) I can't go to my students and say "OK, you guys make A's and I want you guys to make F's." If I did that, the only question I'd be answering is "will students earn the grades that their instructor tells them to?". Instead, I have to put some students in a class that uses a web page, and another group in another class, with the same teacher (and as much else the same as possible) that doesn't use a web page. Then, I can look to see what kinds of grades kids from each class get. So, now, before you go on to the next paragraph, try to identify the IV, the DV, the control group, and the experimental group.
IV = Use of web page (levels are web page present or absent). DV = grades of students. Control group = the group without the web page. Experimental group = the group with the web page.
If I want to know how age affects love of animals, I'd group my subjects by age, and then test to see how each age group likes animals. The IV would be age, the DV would be love of animals. In this case, I couldn't have a control group, because there is no way to pick a group that isn't exposed to the IV (age), but I can have several experimental groups - one of kids 0-2, one of 3-6, and so on.
Another hint, if you can re-phrase an experiment to fit this question, then you can ALMOST ALWAYS figure out the IV/DV.
How does ___1___ change ___2___?
IF you fit an experiment to fit this question, #1 will be your IV, and #2 will be your DV.
Don't forget to check the handouts page, I'll put up the other examples shortly - then, if any of you still need help, ask again, and I'll do my best to explain it in a different way.
Resistant attachment is characterized by a strong need for closeness during free play preiods of the strange situation. These children will not leave the side of their parents - they seem to be very "clingy" to the point of not being able to do anything on their own. When the parent leaves and returns, the child is angry that they were left, and will not respond well to the parent.
Disorganized / Disoriented kids tend to seem utterly confused. They don't really behave in a very characteristic way (so you can't say they will do the same thing every time in the strange situation). Sometimes they act dazed, sometimes they cling, and other times they act as if they don't recognize that the parent is in the room.
secondary circular reactions: the child finds certain objects in the world interesting, and so acts on them over and over in the same way to experience the interesting objects for as long as possible. So, a child may see a helium balloon floating on a string and pull the string over and over again to make the balloon bounce.
coordination of secondary reactions: the child has now learned to control objects in the world, and so can work to reach goals. So, a child may have learned how to bang a stick on the ground, so when s/he sees a xylophone, the child can bang a stick on the xylophone to make sounds.
tertiary circular reactions: the child has had enough experience with objects to notice that they don't always do the same thing. So, s/he is now actively interested in seeing "what happens if?". A child in this substage might drop a ball, then throw the ball, then hit the ball, then spin the ball to see what types of action the ball makes for each action the child makes.
Compare this with intermodal perception, where perception in both domains occurs at the same time. So, my daughter squooshes a leaf, and she knows that the crunchy sound and the leaf are connected, but she can see them and hear them at the same time.
Each culture differs in these things, and their responses to the questions (regarding the overriding culture) can be plotted on two dimensions. The dimensions are listed on the slide - one is adequacy vs. vulnerability (adequacy is the sense of being able to handle the experience, vulnerability is the opposite). The other dimension is solicitude vs. solitude (solicitude is the demonstration of a social component of birth and pregnancy, solitude is the demonstration of a solitary component - no social ties during pregnancy and birth). Look at the graph in the slides and see that a person can be high on vulnerability and high on solicitude. Be sure you can graph this, and understand what all the different possibilities would be. You should be able to imagine different cultures and plot them on the graph.
The study session questions from previous semesters don't always apply. If the question is about a journal article (we're not doing those this semester) or another topic we didn't cover, don't stress. When in doubt, check the lecture slides. If it isn't there, and isn't in the text, you aren't supposed to know it!
As for the neuron, you should know all the parts we discussed in class. Dendrites, axon, axon terminals, myelin sheath, cell body, nucleus. Also, you should know the direction of the flow of information. Always going from the dedrites down the axon, out the axon terminals, across a synapse, and into the dendrites of another neuron.
Preference: The face looking study we discussed in class. Babies prefer interesting stimuli - they look longer at the face or mixed up face as opposed to a two color oval.
Binocular: If you use both eyes to see it. Those little tests at the driver's license place. You look in a viewmaster type thing, and you have to process something that is in only one eye and something that is only in the other eye as one whole. You can do this if you have binocular depth perception
Pictorial: The way artists indicate depth - that tree is closer because it is hiding part of the horse... etc.
Anything is fair game, although there will be about 70% from lecture, and 30% from the book, as with all exams. I am sorry, but I don't give study guides, as I feel they eliminate the possibility of students learning any material that the guides don't include.
Be sure to let me know if you have any specific questions!
A child in the preoperational stage might see a house under construction. Later, when the child views the same house (now completed) s/he is unable to remember the many steps that it took to build the house. So, even if they saw it at the frame stage, they wouldn't understand that the house that is covered in brick is really built out of wood. They would conclude that there is a brick house, and that somewhere there is a wood house as well.
They simply focus on the endpoints, rather than what happened to connect the endpoints.
What seems like a regression is actually progress. Whereas before, kids were simply copying adult speech, overgeneralizing these verbs shows that they have actually LEARNED the standard verb forms. They will eventually learn the irregular forms as well, but it takes a while.
The idea of this slide is that a test of English proficiency was given to a bunch of people. Some learned English from birth (listed as native on the slide), while others came from countries where other languages were spoken and learned English as a second language. The score on the test is on the Y axis, the age of learning English is on the X axis. All of the participants had been speaking English for at least 15 years by the time they took the test.
Hopefully, what you can see is that as long as you learn English (or supposedly any second language) by the time you are 8, you can learn to speak it as fluently as a native speaker. However, by the time you reach 10, your ability in English will be lessened, even after 15 years of speaking it. The idea here is that there must be some kind of critical period for learning language. If you have no experience with a given language prior to puberty, you won't ever speak it like a native. If however, you begin to study a second language while you are still very young, you can speak it fluently, and you will be indistinguishable from a native speaker.
What would this suggest about the kindergarteners in my daughter's class? It is an ESOL (English second to other language) class, where the kids are immersed in an English speaking class. Many of her classmates didn't speak a word of English when they started classes in August of last year. What would you predict for these kids? How well will they speak English by the time they reach high school?
In class we said that kids during the play years don't really handle metacognitive tasks very well. They tend to have no idea how best to study, or what the best steps would be to attain memory goals. My daughter's lack of metacognition is the reason why I have to help her study her reading list. She has no idea how to go about it, or how to tell when she is ready to tell the teacher she needs to be tested. Hope this helps!
The preference paradigm is simply giving infants a chance to let us know what they like better. If my daughter Chloe eats cream cheese and yogurt equally well, it could be that she likes them both, or it could be that she senses that they are the same. When however, she spits out cottage cheese, she is letting us know that she can tell that there is a difference between cottage cheese and cream cheese. Researchers make the paradigm work with looking time, (i.e. which image does the child prefer to look at?) and also sucking time (i.e. which stimuli will they try to view when they can control two stimuli by sucking at different rates?). Other methods are possible as well, but essentially, if a child prefers one thing over another, it means that they recognize that the two things are different.
Please do a search for the word "modal" on this page, and you'll find several other helpful comments to questions from previous semesters. Let me know if you need more info!
In Three Mountains Task you asked what kids centrate on in this example. Would it be how THEY see the Three Mountains. NOT how they think the other kid will see it.
- parents who don't give the child much alone time (kids are always with the parent, and thus behave as resistant when they are left)
- parents who don't demonstrate that they can be trusted to leave. Perhaps they are good parents, but they try to sneak out instead of telling the child where they are going.
Babkin – push hands, head turns to side
Compare this with Experience dependent functions. These refer to functions that will develop only if certain stimulation is experienced. So for example, learning to hear certain phonemes is dependent on hearing them in the first place. If we don't hear the phonemes in question, we lose the abilty to distinguish them. Our ability is dependent on the stimulation. Not everyone will get it, so some brains develop differently than others.
Second, you should take a look at the online lectures. The slide you are looking for is from lecture #5 - on infancy and cognition. Please do take a look if you can't find your notes.
The first stage is simple reflexes - babies just reacting to stimuli. Stage two is primary circular reactions, where a chance event is interesting, and the kiddo keeps doing it. Primary circular reactions are repeated events with the child's own body, like smacking their face with a foot, fanning a hand near their eyes, etc. No object is used. The last stage is called "internalization of schemes". Hope this helps!
So, for example, a kid who used to say "I ate my food" will demonstrate overgeneralization when they say "I eated my food." Before, they were just mimicking language, but now they know the rules - even if they apply them incorrectly for irregular forms. They'll eventually overcome this, and learn both the regular and irregular forms correctly.
So many connections are made during the first two years of life, but we have to remember the old "use it or lose it" which is also part of transient exuberance. If you use connections, they'll stay - if you don't they'll degrade. So, this is why we talk about the importance of stimulating infants. The more stimulation they get, the more connections they'll maintain.
vocative deals with environmental feedback – if the child does something consistent with their genes, hey may do it very well. Then someone will praise them, and they’ll want to do the same thing more requently.
ctive deals with the person selecting an environment where they can exercise their genetically gven skills to their fullest potential. A person who is musical might apply for American idol, or et into Juilliard and study there.
I just answered a very similar question. The only addition would be passive – Which is for younger kids. Their parents just set up an environment that they like, which exposes the child to things that the child will probably have a genetic predisposition for. The musical parents are likely to have a musical child, but even before the kid can play music, the child’s environment is likely to be full of music and musical instruments, because the parents like them.
If on the other hand, I go to a farm for the first time, I may initially try to assimilate, and call the farm a “zoo.” Someone would probably correct me, and tell me it was a “farm,” which would require a NEW concept, and changing a memory structure or making a new concept is called accommodation. Thus, through accommodation, I’d change my initial declaration and say “oh, this is a FARM!”
As for the surprise paradigm, this demonstrates the tendency to look longer (or act surprised) when something unexpected occurs. So, WITHOUT habituation (meaning you can show them a different stimulus each time) you show them one stimulus, then a different one, then a different one. If they see them all as the same, or predictable, there will be no big reaction. If they see one of the stimuli as “not belonging” or “not making sense” they’ll act surprised. Here, it is not about habituation or dishabituation because they aren’t given those first trials of all the stimuli being repeated. Surprise is often used for sequences of events- I mentioned “baby math” in class, but you could also use it to see if infants are sensitive to stories being told in the correct or incorrect order. You don’t have to do anything first, but once you start showing a series of pictures, they either will or won’t react.
The preference paradigm is when you show two different stimuli and see which the infants prefer. The strange thing here is that there is sometimes a preference for old, familiar stimuli. For example, a mom’s voice is preferred over a stranger’s voice. This tells us that the infant can hear that there is a difference, but it sometimes is confusing to students because the other two types of paradigms rely on the idea that new is generally preferred. It just works out that new makes infants look longer for a short bit, but that the familiar (from the past) is often preferred long term.
PSYC 2309 - Fall 2007 - ONLINE STUDY SESSION
Exam 3 Material
Associative play is where kids are playing with similar toys and there IS some interaction. They aren't trying to work together for a common goal, but if two kids are building with playdough, now one might say "I need some yellow for my model of big bird" and the other might give up some yellow. The other child has no vested interest in the big bird model, and is probably building something completely different, but s/he is willing to help.
Informal code, on the other hand, is context DEPENDENT, meaning that you have to know a little about what is going on to understand it. Because informal code often uses slang, it can be ambiguous if you don't know the context. If I say, "I'm down" you need to know if I'm sad or happy to understand whether I mean "I'm upset" or "I understand". Informal code tends to use a narrow vocabulary, that may be understood only by the target audience.
Understanding that there are different codes to use when talking, and when we should use these codes is a part of pragmatics, but a very advanced part. We can use code switching as an example of how much development goes on in the understanding of pragmatics from preschool to the school years. By the time kids reach middle childhood, they can handle all the nuances that code switching requires. It is a great leap from the preschool child's embarrassing failure to understand pragmatics.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - give the child opportunities to do things for themself when appropriate. For instance, even if it takes you longer, let the child attempt to feed themself rather than spoon feeding them. This will let the child feel a sense of autonomy.
Initiative vs. Guilt - allow the child a chance to take charge. Offer choices when possible, so say "do you want to dry your hands with the blower or the paper towels?" This will allow them to feel that they are in control and that they can take responsibility for their own actions.
Industry vs. Inferiority - give the child age appropriate tasks that are at or just barely above the child's ability level. As they are able to complete tasks (like setting the table, or dressing themselves) they'll feel accomplished and happy.
States rather than Transformation – Understanding only the endpoints, not what goes on in the middle. The wall wasn’t painted and now it is. How did that happen?
Compare this to precausal reasoning, which tends to be transductive. This means that kids don't necessarily follow rules of cause and effect correctly. So, a kid might link to unrelated events simply because they happen close to each other in time. If they regularly go to school twice a week and grandma picks them up, if they want to see grandma they'll ask if they can go to school. They are assuming that school makes grandma come, even if it is a day that grandma shouldn't be coming.
States Rather than Transformation is ignoring ALL of the steps, and seeing the beginning and end as two distinct experiences. Very often, this will result in the same faulty assumptions as those made when a child doesn't understand reversibility (if the steps can just be done in reverse order to undo the change), so it is understandable that it is confusing. The thing here is that the steps are ignored, and so the two endpoints are totally unrelated to the child. An example here would be a child who doesn't understand how a stained shirt could ever be clean again. They don't understand the idea that washing is the middle step - the whole thing seems like magic to them. Dirty shirt, clean shirt, WOW!
PSYC 2309 - Spring 2007 - ONLINE STUDY SESSION
None of the age groups we’ve covered are capable of abstract reasoning yet. That is reserved (according to Piaget) for folks in the formal operational stage (adolescence and beyond).
Exam 4 Material
avoidant - authoritarian/permissive - I'd go more with permissive or indifferent. you'd be seeing a kid that didn't really care if the parent was there.
disorganized - indifferent - YEP!
Identities - moratorium - authoritative/permissive - YEP!
Confusion - permissive - indifferent - I could see both of these here. hope this helps!
PSYC 2309 - Spring 2007 - ONLINE STUDY SESSION FOR THE FINAL
I don't see my question here. I'd like to submit a new question.
|This web interface was designed by Missi Patterson - you can email her at firstname.lastname@example.org.|