Fluid Volume Excess

Causes

Any cause of excessive retention of sodium and water
b. Renal failure and heart failure
c. Excessive adrenal cortical hormones
d. Excessive administration of IV fluids (especially sodium containing fluids) Assessment:

Manifestations

a. Constant irritating cough (First sign)
b. Puffy eyelids
c. Peripheral edema
d. Rales
e. Ascites
f. Full bounding pulse
g. Elevated central venous pressure
h. Distended neck veins
i. Slow emptying of hands when arm is raised
i. Increased urinary output (If kidneys are functioning)