HISTORY 1302 (PCM)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

TEST 1

Because the history of the United States was shaped and influenced to a large degree by the geography of the continent, it is imperative that students know the basic details of United States geography. Therefore the student will be required to take a geography map test. A couple of websites that might help you with the map quiz are: Drag and Drop the States and The USA Quiz

The multiple-choice map test will be taken in the Testing Center on an answer sheet provided by the Testing Center.

The map test will be the first test taken in this course and must be completed by the deadline date listed in the syllabus.

Any good atlas will help you locate all of the features that you need to identify. Your text has a map that shows most of the features listed below. A practice map which may be copied for study is found below.

The test will specify thirty (30) of the following and ask the student to locate them on a map:
All 50 states by name Great Basin
Canada Great Plains
Mexico Chesapeake Bay
Atlantic Ocean Florida Keys
Pacific Ocean Long Island
Gulf of Mexico Cape Cod
Hudson River 49 s North Latitude
Ohio River Washington D.C.
Mississippi River New York City
Missouri River Philadelphia
Red River Boston
Columbia River Charleston, S.C.
Colorado River Chicago
Rio Grande River Austin, Texas
All 5 Great Lakes by name Richmond
Sierra Nevada Mountains Denver
Rocky Mountains





 ****************************************************************************************************************

TEST 2
Chapters 17- 20

Page numbers for the 9th edition are in (parentheses)
Page numbers for the 10th edition are in [brackets]

Chapter 17

1. Identify the physical features of the Great Plains that impeded western settlement.(p.419) [391-392]

2. Describe the lifestyle of the Great Plains ' Indians.(pp.421-422) [393]

3. Name the major U.S. government Indian policies from 1830 to 1890.(pp. 422-425) [394-395 & 397]

4. Identify the most significant blow to Indian tribal life.(p. 425) [397]

5. Describe the U.S. government's land distribution policy from1862-1890.(p. 430) [402]

6. Identify the largest landowning group in the west.(p. 431) [402]

7. Describe the major components of territorial government in the west.(p. 431) [403]

8. Discuss the Spanish influences in southwestern life and institutions.(p. 431) [403]

9. List the major mining strikes in the American West from 1848 to 1876.(pp. 432-433) [404]

10. Describe the typical mining camp of the 19th century.(pp. 433-434) [404-405]

11. Describe the steps in the development of the cattle industry.(pp. 434-435) [405-406]

12. Identify the major social and legal aspects of cowboy society.(p. 435) [406-407]

13. Describe the physical and nature-related problems facing western farmers.(pp. 437-438) [407-408]

14. Explain the new farming methods developed in the American West.(p. 438) [408-409]

15. Name the problems causing western farmer discontent.(p. 440) [410]

 

Chapter 18

1. Explain the factors that caused rapid industrial growth in the 19th century U.S. (p. 444) [416]

2. List the elements in the transportation and communications revolutions.(p. 444) [416]

3. Explain the advantages of the railroads in promoting economic growth.(pp. 444-445) [416-417]

4. Describe how post-Civil War railroads were constructed and their political and economic impact on society.(pp. 445-447) [417-419]

5. Name the major Northeast trunk lines.(p. 447) [419]

6. Explain how the first Pacific railroad was constructed and financed.(pp. 448-449) [419-420]

7. Describe the economic results of railroad growth in the U.S. (p. 450) [420-421]

8. Explain why the steel industry grew in the 1870's and 1880's.(p. 451) [421-422]

9. Evaluate why Andrew Carnegie triumphed in the steel industry to 1901.(pp. 451-452) [422]

10. Describe why John D. Rockefeller triumphed in the oil industry.(pp. 453-454) [423]

11. List the two MOST important innovations of the late 19th century.(p. 454) [424]

12. Describe the changes that took place in the selling or merchandizing of products in the late 19th century.(p. 458) [428]

13. Discuss the working conditions of the late 19th century wage earner.(p. 459) [428-429]

14. Describe the workplace conditions for 19th century women.(pp. 459-460) [429]

15. List the major components of the 19th century labor movement.(pp. 461-463) [431-433]

 

 

Chapter 19

1. List the major changes in American lifestyles from 1877 to 1890.(pp. 466-468) [438-439]

2. Identify the developments in city architecture and housing patterns in the late 19th century.(pp. 468-469) [440-441]

3. Describe the social characteristics of immigrants from 1877 to 1890.(pp. 470-471) [441 & 444]

4. Describe the social characteristics of immigrants from 1890 to 1910.(p. 471) [444]

5. Explain how the urban political machines worked from 1850 to 1900.(p. 475) [446]

6. Identify the major reform movements from 1877 to 1890.(p. 478) [448]

7. Name the main types of popular entertainment from 1877 to 1890.(pp. 478-479) [448-449]

8. Explain how the average American middle class family changed from 1877 to 1890.(p. 480) [449-450]

9. Identify the main American educational trends from 1877 to 1890.(pp. 481-482) [450-451]

10. Name the court case establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine.(pp. 482-483) [451]

11. Describe the factors fostering the growth in higher education to 1900.(p. 483) [451-452]

12. Describe the place of Blacks in higher education from 1860 to 1900.(pp. 483-484) [452-453]

13. Describe the goal of Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise." (p. 484) [453]

14. Explain how Henry George proposed to close the gap between America 's rich and poor.(p. 486) [455-456]

15. Describe the background and goals of the Settlement House program.(p. 488) [457]

 

Chapter 20

1. Identify the issues supported by the Gilded Age Democratic Party.(p. 498) [468]

2. Identify the issues supported by the Gilded Age Republican Party.(p. 498) [468]

3. Name the court case giving states the right to regulate railroads.(p. 499) [469]

4. Describe the Gilded Age presidents and their accomplishments.(pp. 499-500) [469-470]

5. List the laws passed by the Republican-controlled Congress in 1890.(pp. 501-502) [470-472]

6. Describe the Populists' major complaints.(p. 502) [472]

7. Discuss the Ocala Platform of the Populists.(p. 504) [474]

8. Describe the role of the Populists in the 1892 election.(p. 505) [474-475]

9. Explain the difficulties of the second Cleveland administration.(pp. 505-508) [476-477]

10. Evaluate Grover Cleveland 's response to the Depression of 1893.(pp. 508-509) [478]

11. Describe how and why women and children entered the labor force following the Depression of 1893.(p. 510) [479-480]

12. Describe the developments in American literature of the 1870's. (p. 511) [480]

13. Describe the campaign strategies of the candidates in 1896.(pp. 513-517) [481 & 484-485]

14. Evaluate the economy and domestic legistation of the first McKinley adminstration.(p. 517) [485-486]

15. Describe the results of the election of 1900.(p. 518) [486]

 

 *************************************************************************************

TEST 3
Chapters 21-24

Page numbers for the 9th edition are in (parentheses)

Page numbers for the 10th edition are in [brackets]

Chapter 21

1. Explain why Americans became interested in an overseas empire in the late 19th century.(pp. 522-523) [492-493]

2. Discuss the tenets of Social Darwinism espoused by Josiah Strong.(p. 523) [493]

3. Describe the basic goals of 19th century American foreign policy.(p. 523) [493]

4. List the foreign policy goals of William H. Seward.(p. 524) [494]

5. Explain U.S. foreign policy towards Latin America from 1869 to 1896.(p. 524) [494]

6. Discuss the U.S. relationship with Hawaii in the 19th century.(p. 525) [495]

7. Explain why Americans favored the annexation of Hawaii .(p. 526) [496]

8. List the participants in the dispute over Pago Pago in 1889.(p. 526) [496]

9. Describe Alfred Thayer Mahan's arguments for a new navy.(p. 527) [496-497]

10. List the causes of the Spanish-American War.(pp. 528-529) [498]

11. Describe the types of U.S. troops used in the Spanish-American War.(pp. 530-531) [500-501]

12. List the major campaigns and ranking officers involved in the Spanish- American War.(pp. 532-533) [502-503]

13. Describe the new American empire after the Spanish-American War.(pp. 533-534) [504]

14. Explain the reasons for opposition in the U.S. to overseas empire.(p. 534) [504]

15. Discuss John Hay's "Open Door" policy in China .(p. 540) [507]


Chapter 22

1. Name the leading industry in the mass production movement.(p. 544) [516]

2. Explain how Henry Ford transformed the auto industry.(pp. 544-45) [516-517]

3. Name the industries dominated by trusts from 1898 to 1903.(p. 545) [517]

4. Describe the important business developments from 1898 to 1909.(p. 545) [517]

5. Discuss the important aspects of mass production in the early 20th century.(p. 546) [518]

6. Describe the costs to workers of mass production.(pp. 546-547) [518]

7. List the principles of Frederick Taylor's scientific management.(p. 547) [518-519]

8. Discuss the major aspects of U.S. farm life in the early 20th century.(pp. 547-548) [519]

9. Explain the conditions faced by working women in 1900.(pp. 548-549) [520-521]

10. Name the leader of the Niagara Movement.(p. 550) [522]

11. Explain the main characteristics of immigration to the U.S. 1901-1920.(pp. 551-552) [522-524]

12. Name the major unions and their leaders in the early 20th century U.S. labor movement.(pp. 554-555) [525-527]

13. Describe the important demographical characteristics of the U.S. population in 1920.(p. 559) [530-531]

14. List the important leisure activities of the early 1900's.(p. 560) [531-532]

15. Describe the important changes in the traditional arts in the early 1900's.(pp. 561-562) [532-533]


Chapter 23

1. List the supporters and goals of Progressivism.(p. 566) [537-538]

2. Name the amendment giving women the right to vote nationally.(p. 571) [542]

3. Describe the Progressive reforms in municipal government.(pp. 574-575) [544-545]

4. Describe the Progressive reforms in state government.(pp. 575-576) [545]

5. Discuss Theodore Roosevelt's view of the presidency and his appointments as president.(p. 577) [546]

6. Explain Theodore Roosevelt's trust policy.(p. 577) [547]

7. Name the first target of Theodore Roosevelt's attack on trusts.(pp. 577-578) [547]

8. Explain the resolution of the anthracite coal miners' strike of 1902.(p. 578) [547]

9. List the legislative accomplishments of Theodore Roosevelt's terms.(p. 579) [548-549]

10. Describe the conservation policies of Theodore Roosevelt.(p. 580) [549-550]

11. Discuss the issues over which the Republican Party split during Taft's presidency.(p. 582) [550-551]

12. Describe the effects of the Mann-Elkins Act.(pp. 582-583) [581]

13. Identify the candidates and results of the presidential election of 1912.(pp. 584-585) [552-553]

14. List Wilson 's legislative accomplishments of 1913-1916.(pp. 585-587) [554]

15. Describe Wilson 's anti-progressive stands on legislation.(p. 587) [555]
 

Chapter 24

1. Describe Theodore Roosevelt's defense and foreign policies.(p. 599) [564-565]

2. Discuss how the U.S. got the Panama Canal .(pp. 599-600) [565]

3. Explain the Roosevelt Corollary.(p. 600) [565-566]

4. Describe the relations between the U.S. and Japan from 1900 to 1918.(pp. 600-601) [566]

5. Explain the goals of Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy."(p. 601) [566]

6. Discuss Wilson 's initial foreign policy ideology.(p. 602) [567]

7. Describe Wilson's diplomacy prior to U.S. entry into World War I.(p. 602) [567]

8. Describe Wilson's policy toward Mexico from 1913 to 1917.(pp. 602-603) [568]

9. Discuss the diplomatic events of 1914 leading to World War I.(pp. 603-604) [568-569]

10. Explain the basis of American support for Britain in 1914.(p. 604) [569]

11. Explain why the U.S. entered World War I.(pp. 606-607) [571-572]

12. Describe the U.S. military contributions in World War I.(pp. 607-612) [572 & 576]

13. Discuss the U.S. domestic sector in World War I.(pp. 612-617) [577-582]

14. Identify the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles.(pp. 618-619) [582-583]

15. Explain why the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.(p. 620) [584]

 

**************************************************************************************

TEST 4
Chapters 25-28

Page numbers for the 9th edition are in (parentheses)
Page numbers for the 10th edition are in [brackets]

 
Chapter 25

1. List the prerequisites of the Second Industrial Revolution.(p. 624) [590]

2. Discuss why the automobile industry grew in the 1920's.(p. 624) [590]

3. Discuss U.S. economic growth in terms of sectors of the economy.(pp. 624-625) [590]

4. Describe the areas of economic weakness in the 1920's.(p. 625) [591-592]

5. Explain the major economic events of the 1920's.(p. 626) [592]

6. Describe changes for women and children in the 1920's.(pp. 627-628) [593]

7. List the main authors prominent in the Literary Flowering of the 1920's.(pp. 629-631) [595 & 598]

8. Explain the events of the Red Scare.(pp. 634-635) [599-600]

9. Evaluate the support for and the results of Prohibition.(pp. 636-637) [600-601]

10. Describe the membership and ideology of the Second Ku Klux Klan.(pp. 637-638) [601]

11. Describe the participants and results of the Scopes Trail.(p. 639) [603]

12. Describe the scandals of the Harding administration.(p. 640) [603]

13. Detail the Republicans' legislative accomplishments of the 1920's.(pp. 640-641) [605]

14. Describe the factions within the Democratic party in the 1920's.(p. 641) [605]

15. Evaluate the candidates and their supporters in the election of 1928.(p. 642) [606-607]


Chapter 26

1. Discuss the causes of the Great Crash.(p. 650) [615-616]

2. Evaluate the causes of the Great Depression.(p. 651) [616]

3. Describe the social effects of the Great Depression on the population.(pp. 651-652) [617-618]

4. Name the most prominent victim of the Great Depression.(p. 653) [619]

5. Describe Hoover 's response to the Great Depression.(p. 653) [619]

6. Name Franklin Roosevelt's first New Deal legislation.(p. 655) [621]

7. Name the one of the most successful and enduring of the New Deal programs.(pp. 655-656) [621]

8. Explain the implementation of the National Recovery Act.(p. 656) [622]

9. Explain the implementation of the Agricultural Adjustment Act.(p. 657) [622]

10. Describe the parts of Franklin Roosevelt's relief program.(p. 658) [623]

11. Discuss the political oppositon to the New Deal.(p. 660) [624]

12. Identify the true originator of Social Security.(pp. 660-662) [624 & 626]

13. Describe the ethnic and political changes resulting from the New Deal.(pp. 663-666) [629]

14. Explain why Franklin Roosevelt's court-packing scheme failed.(pp. 667-671) [630-631]

15. Explain why the Democrats suffered in the 1938 elections.(p. 671) [631]


Chapter 27

1. Discuss how the U.S. estranged itself from Europe in the 1920's.(p. 676) [640]

2. Describe Franklin Roosevelt's new Latin American policy.(p. 677) [640]

3. Discuss the results of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921.(pp. 677-678) [641]

4. Explain the reasons why isolationism increased in the U.S. during the 1920's and 1930's.(p. 678) [641]

5. Detail the principal events of U.S. foreign policy from 1939 to 1941.(pp. 680-682) [643-645]

6. Explain why Japan went to war with the U.S. (pp. 683-684) [645-646]

7. Evaluate the planning and attack on Pearl Harbor .(p. 684) [647]

8. Name the single greatest advantage of the U.S. in World War II.(p. 685) [647]

9. Explain the U..S. distrust of the Soviet Union during World War II.(p. 685) [648]

10. Describe the war plan followed by the Allies in 1942-43.(pp. 686-687) [648]

11. Describe the U.S. strategy in the Pacific during World War II.(p. 687) [648]

12. Examine the major domestic developments during World War II.(pp. 688-690) [649-650]

13. Describe how Franklin Roosevelt won the election of 1944.(pp. 692-693) [654]

14. Evaluate the results of the Yalta conference.(pp. 694-695) [655-656]

15. Explain why the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945.(p. 698) [657 & 660]


Chapter 28

1. Discuss the results of the Potsdam Conference.(p. 701) [666]

2. Describe events in Europe after its division between the free world and Communist camps.(pp. 702-703) [666]

3. Explain how the Soviets rebuilt their economy after World War II.(p. 704) [667]

4. Name the supporters of the Containment Policy.(pp. 704-705) [668-669]

5. Describe the Truman Doctrine of 1947.(pp. 705-706) [669-670]

6. Discuss the elements of the Marshall Plan of 1947.(p. 706) [670]

7. Explain the components of Truman's Containment Policy.(pp. 706-707) [670]

8. Evaluate the results of Russia's land blockade of West Berlin .(pp. 707-708) [671]

9. Describe the key elements of U.S. defense policy from 1945 to 1960.(pp. 708-709) [671]

10. Explain why China "fell" to the Communists in 1949.(p. 709) [673]

11. Describe the results of China 's "fall" to the Communists.(p. 710) [673]

12. Detail Truman's political weaknesses.(p. 713) [675]

13. Name the candidates for President in 1948.(pp. 713-714) [675-676]

14. Describe the events that encouraged the rise of McCarthyism.(pp. 714-716) [676-677]

15. Describe the events that contributed to the downfall of McCarthyism.(pp. 717-718) [677-680]

 
 ***************************************************************************************

TEST 5
Chapters 29-32

 
Page numbers for the 9th edition are in (parentheses)
Page numbers for the 10th edition are in [brackets]

Chapter 29

1. Discuss the main social events of the postwar era from 1945 to 1960.(pp. 726-728) [688-690]

2. Explain the cause of the U.S. post-World War II economic boom.(pp. 728-729) [690-691]

3. Describe why the U.S. economy moved forward from 1947 to 1950.(p. 729) [691]

4. Explain the results of postwar suburbanization.(p. 730) [691]

5. Describe the results of the launching of "Sputnik." (pp. 732-733) [694-695]

6. Describe the accomplishments of Truman's Fair Deal.(p. 735) [696-697]

7. Discuss Eisenhower's legislative program.(p. 736) [697]

8. List Eisenhower's legislative accomplishments.(pp. 737-738) [697]

9. Explain the role of the Supreme Court and the President in desegregating the schools.(p. 739) [700]

10. Describe the main actions of the civil rights movement in the 1950's.(pp. 740-742) [701-702]
 

Chapter 30

1. Explain why Kennedy won the presidential election in 1960.(p. 746) [708]

2. Describe Kennedy's defense policy.(p. 747) [709]

3. Describe the results of the Second Berlin Crisis in 1962.(p. 748) [709]

4. Describe Kennedy's strategy for containing Communism.(p. 748) [709]

5. Evaluate Kennedy's Cuban policy of 1961.(p. 749) [710-711]

6. Describe the Russian and U.S. actions in the Cuban missile crisis.(pp. 749-750) [711]

7. Describe Kennedy's civil rights program.(p. 753) [714]

8. Name the Kennedy programs Johnson pushed through Congress.(pp. 756-758) [718-719]

9. List the legislative accomplishments of Johnson's Great Society.(pp. 758-759) [720]

10. Explain the motivation and results of the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.(p. 760) [724-725]

11. Explain why Johnson pushed the U.S. into large-scale involvement in South Vietnam .(pp. 760-764) [725-726]

12. Discuss the focus of the student revolt of the 1960's.(p. 765) [727]

13. Explain the fundamental change in the civil rights movement in the mid- 1960's.(p. 767) [728-729]

14. Describe the events and results of the Tet Offensive in 1968.(p. 770) [731]

15. Explain the campaign and the results of the presidential election of 1968.(pp. 770-772) [731]

 

Chapter 31

1. Discuss the domestic policies of Richard Nixon.(pp. 776-777) [738]

2. Discuss the foreign policies of Richard Nixon regarding detente.(pp. 777-778) [739]

3. Detail Nixon's plan to end the Vietnam War.(p. 778) [739-740]

4. Describe the key events in the Watergate Scandal leading to Nixonís resignation.(pp. 779-780) [741-742]

5. Explain the causes of the energy crisis.(p. 781) [742]

6. Describe the U.S. energy policy dealing with the energy shortage.(pp. 781-784) [743-745]

7. Explain why the Ford presidency was unsuccessful.(p. 789) [749]

8. Explain why Carter proved to be a failure as president.(p. 790) [750]

9. Describe Carter's Middle East foreign policy.(p. 790) [751]

10. Describe Carter's Iranian crisis.(pp. 790-791) [751]

11. Explain why Reagan won the presidential election of 1980.(pp. 792-793) [752-753]

12. Explain the main principles of Reagan's supply-side economics.(p. 793) [753]

13. Describe how Reagan hoped to reduce government spending.(p. 793) [753-754]

14. Describe Reagan's domestic accomplishments.(p. 794) [754-755]

15. Explain how Reagan restored U.S. standing and respect in the world.(p. 795) [755]

16. Describe the basic tenet of Reagan's foreign policy.(pp. 795-798) [755]

17. Describe Reagan's Latin American foreign policy.(p. 798) [755]

18. Describe the Reagan foreign policy toward the Soviet Union in 1987-88.(p. 801) [764]

 

Chapter 32

1. Explain the factors involved in the 1988 election.(p. 809) [770]

2. Describe the main elements of Bush's foreign policy.(p. 810) [771-772]

3. Describe the events leading to U.S. foreign policy success in Kuwait .(p. 811) [772-773]

4. Describe the major changes in the American population from 1970 to 2002.(p. 812) [774]

5. Name the points of origin for most immigrants to the U.S. between 1970 and 2002.(p. 813) [774]

6. Name the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. in 2002.(pp. 813-814) [775]

7. Name the second largest ethnic minority group in the U.S. in 2002.(p. 814) [776]

8. Describe the general characteristics of Hispanic Americans in 2002.(p. 815) [775]

9. Name the fastest growing minority group in the 2000's.(pp. 817-818) [776]

10. Describe the campaign and results of the presidential election of 1992.(p. 818) [778-779]

11. Discuss Clinton's domestic policy in his first term.(p. 818) [779-780]

12. Describe the campaign & results of the presidential election of 1996.(p. 819) [780]

13. Discuss the Clinton Impeachment crisis.(p. 819) [780-781]

14. Describe the presidential election of 2000.(p. 823) [784]

15. Describe George W. Bush’s war on terrorism.(pp. 825-828) [785-789]

 ***************************************************************************************************************

HIS 1302 (DL) Sample Test Questions

The following are sample test questions you might expect to encounter on the exams covering the textbook material. They fall into three categories: 1) the "Except" type question, 2) the "All of the above are correct" variety, and 3) the one-concept answer type question.

The "Except" question is used when there is more than one factor or cause that precipitated the event mentioned in the Learning Objective and it is important that you recognize all of these factors. For example, Chapter 17 Learning Objective 1 asks you to identify the physical features that impeded settlement on the Great Plains. If you turn to America: Past and Present, pages 490-491, you will see a number of factors listed: treeless and flat terrain, the lack of good rivers, little rainfall, little timber, tough soil, and intemperate weather. Therefore the question reads:

1. All of the following physical features influenced westem settlement EXCEPT: A. few rivers B. abundant precipitation C. a lack of lumber D. intemperate climate E. tough and inhospitable soil In this case the correct answer is choice "B" which is the exception. If you know the various factors listed in the textbook, then picking this answer is simple.

The second type of question, the "All of the above are correct" question, is used when there are 4 or 5 important factors and you need to know them. For instance, Chapter 18 Learning Objective 6 asks you to explain how the first Pacific Railroad was constructed and financed. Turning to the text, page 525, you discover this railroad was built by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific, partially financed by the US government, actually constructed in large part by Irish and Chinese immigrants, and hampered by Indian attacks. Therefore the test question might read:

6. The first transcontinental railroad A. was built by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies B. was financed partially by US government loans and grants C. was physically built by ex-soldiers and Irish and Chinese immigrants D. met resistance from Indians E. All of the above are correct. In this case the correct answer is choice "E" since all of the first four choices are correct parts of the total answer. If you just select "A", "B", "C", or "D" it will be counted as incorrect since it is only part of the correct answer.

The third type of question is the one concept answer type of question. An example of this is Chapter 17 Learning Objective 6 requiring you to identify the largest landowning group in the west. Turning to the textbook on page 503 in the second column you read "...the railroad companies were the West's largest landowners.~ The corresponding question might be:

6. The largest landowners in the west were the A railroads B. mining companies C. cattlemen D. farmers E. None of these is correct. The correct answer is obvious choice "A".

Most of the Learning Objectives have several several important factors, influences, steps, results or developments (whichever the Learning Objective requires) and therefore as you review the text to find the answers, you ought to find three or four factors, etc. for each Learning Objective. Relatively few of the Learning Objectives can be answered with one word answers such as found in the third type of question. As you find the three or four pertinent factors, etc. for each Learning Objective, WRITE OUT your answer, and then study your notes; you ought to do well on the exams. If you simply skim the text looking for one word answers to the Learning Objectives, you WILL have difficulty with the exams. Put the time into studying and you should be pleased with your test results.