Founding of the Carlisle Industrial School
The Carlisle Industrial
School was opened in 1879 and served as the first off-reservation
boarding school. It was founded by Richard Henry Pratt as an attempt to
assimilate the Indian. The students were stripped of their culture and
forced to accept the ways of the white man. The students attended
elementary classes for half the day and worked in vocational Jobs
during the rest. Many children died of disease or loneliness. The
sources listed below provide detailed accounts of the history and ideas
behind the Carlisle Industrial School.
Eastman, Charles A. From the Deeo Woods to Civilization: Chapters
in the Autobiography of an Indian Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Eastam, a Carlisle graduate, writes about his life after his boarding
school experience. He discusses his days at college, his life as an
"civilized" Indian, and the difficulties he encounters trying to make a
living in a world that he doesn't belong to. It is very well written
and is an insightful look on the successes and failures of the
Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called it Prairie Light: The story of
Chilocco Indian School.Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press,1984.
This book is compiled of about seventy interviews from Indian Boarding
school survivors. It focuses mainly on the Chilocco Indian School and
its students. Many of these stories portray the Indian Boarding school
life as that of any other white child’s memories, lots of laughter,
games, and school pranks. The book also compares the Structure of the
Chilocco school to that of the Carlisle Industrial School. The
interviews within the book will spark interest and make it a page
Standing Bear, Luther. Land of the Spotted Eagle. Lincoln,
University of Nebraska Press, 1978.
As an accomplished author, Luther Standing Bear provides a colorful
description of his youth as and Indian and as a Carlisle student.
Smith, Edward P., Commissioner’s Annual Report, 1873, p. 8
This document was found in Fischbacher manuscript which contains
multiple Reports from Annual Commissioner’s. these reports were
designed to inform the Secretary of war on the Progress and Situation
of Indian affairs.
Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians
and the Boarding School Experience 1875-1928. Lawrence, Kansas
University Press, 1995.
Education for Extinction is an award winning book that is frequently
cited from. It gives great detail of the experiences and events that to
place through out the Indian Boarding School era. The information is
well put together and categorized in such a way that paints a picture
of history. Adams makes an excellent usage of helpful statistic charts,
photos and valid commentary.
Adams, Evelyn C. American Indian Education: Its Men, Ideas, and
Illusions. New York, Arno Press, 1971.
This book, all be it short, is an informative one hundred page critique
of the government associated schools and their economic aspect. It
contains rare exerts from out of print materials. It provides an
objective look on the reasonings behind governing officials decision
making. There is a very insightful chapter on the Meriam Report.
Fritz, Henry E. The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890.
Philadelphia, University of Pennsyvania Press, 1963.
This text addresses the many different views on the issues of Indian
Education. These views include those of the public, the Catholic
Church, those involved in the early reformation of the Indian policy.
Fischbacher, Theodore. “A Study of the Role of the Federal
Government in the Education of the American Indian.” Diss.U of
Arizona,1967. DA 1974
Though a dissertation, this manuscript has an excellent array of
Government documents and resides in the Library of Congress. It offers
information and Administrative reports on Laws, and Reports on the BIA
and other Government appointed departments. This is an excellent source
on factual data of Government documents. The texts is not always easy
to comprehend, because it covers such a vast amount of material.
Holt, Marilyn Irving. Indian Orphanages. Lawrence, Kansas
University Press, 2001.
Though this source was not cited in my research paper I found it to be
very insightful and a rare find. It gave a great briefing of the
history behind the Assimilation of the children.
“In the White Man’s Image” American Experience.PBS. Alexandria,
As most films broadcasted on PBS are, this film is very informative, it
has interviews of credible authors and historians. It provides a rich
in detail history of the forming of Carlisle and the Richard Henry
Pratt. It also has an excellent soundtrack.
Landis, Barbara. “Carlisle Indian Industrial School History.”
N.d., n.p. May 1, 2006 http://home.epix.net/~landis/index.html
This site is extremely well organized and put together, there are
informative articles, Interviews and pictures. It gives a detailed
history of students, life in the school and history of the schools
legacy. This is an excellent reliable source as it contains
bibliographies, both primary and secondary.
Reyhner, Jon., and Jeanne Eder. American Indian Education: A
History. Norman, Oklahoma University Press, 2004.
The authors of this book have many other works within the field Indian
culture and education. This particular book gives extensive information
on many different Indian schools and their backgrounds. It follows the
history and gives attention to the laws and regulations regarding
Indian culture. This book is well written and organized, and readable.
Trennert, Robert A. Jr,. The Phoenix Indian School: Forced
Assimilation in Arizona, 1891-1935. Norman, Oklahoma University
Though the focus of this book is on the Phoenix Boarding school it
incorporated a great deal of the Carlisle’s Industrial Schools history
and its roots. There is a grand section on “ the founder of Indian
Education” Richard Henry Pratt and his methods, history and beliefs. It
covers the Carlisle’s system of outing quite thoroughly along with the
other aspects of the curriculum.