Bio 1704  Intro to Micro

                                                     Fall 00   Rohde  

Exam I

I.          True/False (15 pts)


          1.  In RNA, guanine pairs with cytosine while adenine pairs with uracil.

          2.  Robert Koch verified Ivanovski's "germ theory of disease".

          3.  An acidic pH of 1.5 is a strong acid while a pH of 7 is a strong base.

          4.  A pure culture is a medium with no species of organism(s) present.

          5.  In gene expression, the information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.

          6.  The endospore is responsible for reproduction and growth of bacteria.

          7.  Eucaryotic cells are varied and highly specialized with a nucleus and membrane

     bound organelles (cell structures).

          8.  Parasites are microbes which live in or on another organism to gain nutrients

     and protection while doing no damage to the host.

          9.  The pilus is a critical feature for the process of conjugation.

         10.  Fleming was the discoverer of the antibiotic tetracycline.

         11.  Lactic acid fermentation is a process used in the production of yogurt and other                     dairy products.

         12.  ATP is the storage molecule for energy which is used by microorganisms.

         13.  The bacterial cell wall is composed of mainly peptidoglycan made up of

      N-acetylglutamic acid and N-acetyl muramic acid.

         14.  In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine while guanine pairs with cytosine.

         15.  The study of fungi in the world of microorganisms is known as mycology.


II.         Match the following terms and descriptions (20 pts)


          1. Main function is protein synthesis

          2. Responsible for germ theory of disease

          3. Means of motility for bacteria

          4. Anticodon

          5. 1st to develop Microscope

          6. Main functions are adherance and prevention of phagocytosis

          7. Chemical reaction that literally means Ato break down@

          8  Developed aseptic technique in hospitals

          9. Type of microscope that lends itself in the study of shape and internal structure                      (typical microbiology microscope)

        10. Immunization for smallpox


a.  Mitochondria                                              k.  Jenner

b.  Salk                                                            l.  Nucleus

c.  Ribosome                                                   m. Catabolism

d.  Ehrlich                                                       n.  Pasteur

e.  Brightfield                                                  o.  Lister

f.  Flagella                                                       p.  Darkfield

g.  Van Leeuwenhock                                      q.  Phylum

h.  Janssen                                                       r.  Pathogen

i.   mRNA                                                        s.  Capsule

j.  tRNA                                                           t.   Anabolism


Exam 1

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III.       Define (10 pts)


1.  Lyophilization-



2.  Pure culture-



3.  Pili-



4.  Porin proteins-



5.  Aseptic technique-



IV.       List or Identify (10 pts)


1.  Example of a physical mutation



2.  Three major shapes of bacteria



3.  Ionic bond



4.  Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs



5.  Aerobic respiration vs. Anaerobic respiration


V.        Multiple Choice (20 pts)


          1.   During transcription of DNA, a sequence of AAA will order an RNA base                                             sequence of    (a) UUU   (b) TTT   (c) UAA   (d) ACG  (e)  amino acids

          2.  The high power objective of the microscope has a magnification of  (a) 100x

      (b) 40x   (c) 10x   (d) 400x   (e) 1000x

          3.  Bacterial cells’ outer surface are predominantly __________  (a) positively charged                 (b) neutral  (c) translucent  (d) negatively charged  (e) porous

          4.  Salk is responsible for his contribution of  (a) penicillin   (b) 1st microscope

      (c) polio vaccine   (d) structure of DNA

          5.  Polysaccharides are   (a) single sugar molecule   (b) steroids   (c) more than two                       sugars  (d) genomes (e) proteins


Exam I

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           6.  Covalent bonds are formed when atoms ______ electrons.  (a) lack   (b) repel 

      (c ) form   (d) lose   (e) share

           7.  The cell membrane functions in  (a) transport   (b) motility   (c) nutrient

      processing and synthesis   (d) both a & c   (e) none of the above

          8.  Carbohydrates are found in DNA and cell walls and can be made up of

      (a) nucleic acids   (b) solutions of ions   (c) triglycerides   (d) enzymes

      (e) none of the above

          9.  Flagella with a single flagellum at one end are said to be  (a) lophotrichous

      (b) monotrichous   (c) peritrichous   (d) amphitrichous  (e) unitrichous

         10.  Two procaryotic structures that function in adhesion are the pilus and 

      (a) cilia   (b) capsule   (c) mitochondria   (d) endoplasmic reticulum

____ 11.  The enzyme which pairs corresponding correct bases with each other during                                       replication is  (a) RNA polymerase   (b) helicase    (c ) DNA polymerase   (d)                        ATPase

____ 12.  The following biotechnology technique is responsible for Amimicing@ replication in a               test  tube.   (a) RFLP   (b) PCR   (c ) cloning   (d) recombination    (e) none of                     these

____ 13.  Transfer RNA (tRNA) is said to be Abilingual@ during translation because it can read                     the language of RNA and   (a) DNA   (b) rRNA   (c ) ATP   (d) amino acids

____ 14.  A pH of 7 is said to be _______ which is where most of the ________ bacteria                         prosper. (a) neutral, nonpathogenic   (b) acidic, pathogenic   (c ) neutral,                                              pathogenic  (d) basic, gram positive    (e) nonionic, gram negative

____ 15.  Binomial nomenclature refers to the (a) genus and species   (b) species and order

     (c ) genus and division    (d) kingdom and genus    (e) phylum and order

____ 16.  In the lab, the isolation of pure and single colonies of bacteria is achieved by                performing a   (a) streak plate    (b) mixed culture   (c ) smear (d) PCR

____ 17.  The term pathogenic refers to (a) illness (b) disease causing (c ) chemotherapy

     (d) genetic characteristics  (e) cancerous

____ 18.  In the gram stain, the acetone/alcohol is responsible for (a) lysing the high lipid           content of gram neg cells   (b) lysing the teichoic acid of gram neg. cells   (c )              binding the peptidoglycan layer of both gram pos. and neg. cells   (d) washing the        cells clean

____ 19.  With a complex media, the contents are (a) chemically precise and defined (b) most       often made up of salt and water  (c ) useful for the gram stain (d) generally                  unknown (chemically undefined)

____ 20.  A weak acid or base that keeps solutions from becoming too acidic or too basic for       organisms to prosper is known as a   (a) base   (b) buffer (c ) organic compound (d)      ion


VI.       Short Answer Essay (each question worth 5pts)

Answer 5 of the 10 questions.  Clearly mark a 6th question and answer as a bonus.

Total pts = 25 (+5 if bonus is answered correctly)


1. Explain Koch=s Postulates and the Germ Theory of Disease.




Exam I

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2.  Discuss how raw materials (substrates) from the environment are converted into the             finished product during metabolism by explaining the sequential steps in the             assembly line.










3. Discuss organic compounds, briefly describing the four classes of macromolecules.              Give examples in your list.








4.  Define the process of gene expression (transcription and translation).  Use drawings to help your explanation.









5.  Discuss the 4 major ways that genetic material is transferred between bacteria.







6. Distinguish between simple and differential biological staining procedures and list the four steps of the Gram stain.  Explain how the gram stain differentiates between the gram positive and gram negative cell wall (ie. which step is crucial in the procedure and why?).







Exam 1

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7. Compare and contrast the cell wall of the gram positive bacteria to gram negative                         bacteria. 










8.  Describe selective, differential and enrichment media.









9.  Describe the process of DNA replication.  Why is it referred to as semiconservative replication? 











10.  Define resolution with respect to the microscope.  Why does one use immersion                          oil with the 100X objective lens. 






MAKE SURE TO ONLY ANSWER 5 Essays and then Circle a 6th  one for a bonus….if you don’t designate which 1 is the bonus….it will not be graded.