Unit 1 Study Guide

Bio 2420 Intro to Microbiology

R. Rohde


After completing Chapter 1, you should be able to:


1.                  Define the following terms:

a.       microbe                                          g.         pathogenic

b.      mycology                                        h.         decomposers

c.       parasitology                                    i.          asepsis

d.      virology                                            j.          chemotherapy

e.       spontaneous generation               k.         microbiology

f.        biogenesis                                      l.           taxonomy


2.         Identify contributions made to microbiology by the following: (See Appendix B in your textbook)


a.       Anton van Leeuwenhoek                         g.         Watson & Crick

b.     Paul Ehrlich                                                 h.         Salk

c.       Louis Pasteur                                             i.          Semmelweis

d.      Edward Jenner                                           j.            Oliver Wendell Holmes                            

e.       Joseph Lister                                            k.           Linnaeus

f.        Robert Koch                                               l.            Woese


3.         Explain the Germ Theory of Disease and Koch's Postulates.  How do they relate?


4.         Name the major groups of organisms studied in microbiology.


5.        Describe the naming of microbes according to the system of binomial nomenclature.

List some of the types of classification systems and their differences.  What is a domain and what are               they?  

6.         Define the importance of the scientific method with respect to the theory of spontaneous generation.  


After completing Chapter 3, you will be able to:


1.                  Describe how the following types of microscopes are used to study microbes:

a.       brightfield                                       d.         fluorescence

b.      darkfield                                         e.         electron (TEM & SEM)

c.       phase-contrast

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2.         Distinguish between simple and differential biological stains and list the four major steps of the Gram stain.


3.         Explain the following terms:


a.       pure culture                                    g.         broth

b.      smear                                             h.         colony

c.       aseptic technique                          i.          mixed culture

d.      streak plate                                     j.          lyophilization

e.       agar                                                k.         incubation

f.        inoculation                                      l.          anaerobic/aerobic


4.         Distinguish between chemically defined, complex and living media.  Describe selective, differential, and enrichment media.

5.         List and define the five methods of culturing microorganisms (Five I's).

6.        List, label, and define the major parts of a typical compound microscope.

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After completing Chapter 4, you should be able to:


1.                  Explain the basic shapes and groupings of bacteria (morphological characteristics).


2.                  Distinguish between eucaryotic and procaryotic cells with regard to size, presence or absence of organelles, type of nuclear region, and structure of cell surface layers, etc.


3.         Identify and give the function of each of these procaryotic structures:


a.       capsule                                           g.         ribosome

b.      cell wall                                            h.         ribosome

c.       cell membrane                                i.          endospores

d.      periplasm                                        j.          glycocalyx

e.       flagella                                             k.         Outer membrane

f.        pili (fimbriae)                                    l.          LPS, NAM, NAG


4.         Distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria cell walls.  What is Bergey's Manual?

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After completing Chapter 7, you should be able to:


1.                  Define the following terms:

a.       binary fission                                              g.         microaerophile

b.      thermophiles                                               h.         organic growth factors

c.       halophile                                                     i.          doubling time

d.      mesophile                                                   j.          strict anaerobe

e.       trace elements                                           k.         facultative anaerobe

f.        strict aerobe                                               l.          psychrophile


2.                  Explain the bacterial growth curve and each stage.


3.                  List the factors necessary for bacterial growth and indicate the purpose of each one.


4.                  Explain how various temperatures, oxygen states, and pH are maintained in the lab.

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After completing Chapter 8, you should be able to:


1.                  Briefly describe metabolism in microbes with respect to the flow of materials.


2.                  Define the following terms:       


a.       anabolism                                                   e.         ATP

b.      catabolism                                                  f.          enzymes

c.       aerobic respiration                                      g.         pathways

d.      fermentation                                                h.         anaaerobic respiration


3.         Describe the various nutritional classes of microbes.


After completing Chapter 9, you should be able to:


1.                  Define replication versus gene expression with regard to genetics.


2.                  Describe the processes involving DNA replication and gene expression (transcription and translation).


3.                  Explain how the microbial genome changes by mutation.  List some examples of the types of mutations               that may occur.


4.                  Explain the processes by which microbial genetic information can be transfered or exchanged and the               effect.

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***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions and study hints!!