Teaching Students with Limited English Proficiency
Austin Community College

English as a Second Language (ESL 101)

 Objectives

1.       Understand the ESL student and how to ameliorate factors affecting student's learning of language, culture, and academic content

2.       Understand the SLAR and ELAR TEKS  (TEA) by comparing similarities and differences

3.       Understand how the history of language policy informs and affects ESL teaching practice today

4.       Possess a classroom "toolkit" from which to select strategies for managing the unique ESL environment, with appropriate lessons for ESL/ELL learners

5.    Understand the differences between developing proficiency in the 1st language (L1) and English (L2) and know the most effective teaching methods for achieving oral and literacy proficiency

6.    Understand the differences between developing oral and literacy language skills and know the most effective teaching methods for achieving proficiency

7.    Understand the unique difficulties in learning the English language as a 2nd language.  This includes knowing the vocabulary of English instruction, knowing the linguistic (phonemic and syntactic) components of English

8.    Develop skills in teaching reading and writing to ELL (English Language Learners) through the develop of his/her own skills and through learning effective strategies for teaching literacy skills/transferring literacy skills from L1 to L2

9.       Select appropriate formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments and know how to use evaluation results to plan and adapt instruction

10.     Understand the ESL teacher's role as advocate for students, families, and community involvement and know strategies for successful advocacy

11.     Be prepared to pass the TExES exam in order to add ESL certification to SBEC standard certification

Submitting quiz answers 

**Please keep track of all 5 quiz answers and type them in their prospective answer boxes ONLY when you have completed the entire course. Once you exit softchalk any answers will be lost. All 5 quizzes will be submitted at the end of the course when you type your name in the box and press submit.

 

"Competent language instructors are hard to find. When you find one, grab 'em, pay as much as you can, and respect a good teacher like a rare jewel! Ted Klein

 

Texas teachers have historically been trained to teach in English. The alternatives were bilingual, dual language immersion programs (DLI), English as a Second Language, Linguistics, foreign language training, maintenance, enrichment, two-way models, and transitional bilingual. Teachers must attend to issues related to language acquisition in a well-implemented [DLI] program. The teachers understand that the students can acquire the new language through meaningful and purposeful use. This is usually accomplished by engaging students in good sound instructional practice such as active learning, cooperative learning, discovery learning, and inquiry-based learning (Kolak Group and TEA 60).

 

http://txccrs.org/index.htm

 

Study the information available in this training before attempting the ESL Sample test. Consult the Glossary at the end for unknown terms.

 

Can you tell which students are more advanced in English than others?

 

 

Robin F

 

In the quiz me below please comment on the photo above explaining why you can or cannot distinguish a difference in the kids' English skills. Click on Finish when you have completed your answer. * Once you exit out of the program all answers will be lost, so only type your answer in the box and submit when you have completed the entire course.

 Toggle open/close quiz question

 

 

Objective 1: Understanding the ESL student

The ESL student is one who is typically not raised as an English language speaker/learner. Although most students in Texas have connections to Mexico, other cultures are moving to Texas during the 21st century's global economy and ability to work with individuals in different countries. The ESL teacher will have these students, and although many principles are emphasized, most teachers can easily become effective teachers by incorporating effective techniques that work with all students.

Traveling in a foreign country can change one's perspective about the lack of ability to understand life around us. Traveling is a difficult situation: finding locations, hotels, sightseeing events, places to eat and use the restroom, purchases, and meaning of traditions. If we understand that students without a strong English background feel much like we do while traveling, empathy and necessary skills become evident as solutions to keeping the "traveler" comfortable during the journey of learning complex skills in another language.

Respect and learn as much as possible about the culture and background of students. We best learn when we can relate skills and understanding to our background and traditions. Work between the two cultures as much as possible and allow time for student questions.

Anticipate situations that will cause confusion and anxiety. E.g.: idioms are not always understood by English speakers from different parts of the country, but for those from different countries, idioms must be identified and explained. A ready list is available by Googling English idioms and phrases. Try linking to websites that give examples, such as http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/idioms.

Cognates are "convertible words" that are spelled the same in both languages. Google for sites, such as the English-Spanish cognates at http://www.esdict.com/English-Spanish-Cognates.html#nouns  (free download).

Religious differences can make the journey more difficult. Be aware of students' religious beliefs to dispel confusion and not honoring the diversity of student backgrounds and traditions, but teaching about religions is different from practicing religion in schools. Information about other religions can be found by Googling:

·          http://www.religioustolerance.org/ps_pray.htm

·          http://www.freedomforum.org/publications/first/teachersguide/teachersguide.pdf

·         http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion

 

Understanding ESL students:

These illustrations help you see what listeners with different abilities can understand (understood words highlighted in red), so gauge the number of words understood as students become more and more advanced.

Beginning listener might understand:

•         Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new in math class. It's difficult, so I'm going to need everyone's undivided attention.  Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word "net."  Today's lesson is about net. As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles? That is the net of the cylinder.

Intermediate listener might understand:

•         Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new in math class. It's difficult, so I'm going to need everyone's undivided attention. Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word "net." Today's lesson is about net. As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles? That is the net of the cylinder.

Advanced listener might understand:

•         Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new in math class. It's difficult, so I'm going to need everyone's undivided attention. Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word "net." Today's lesson is about net.  As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles?  That is the net of the cylinder.

Advanced-high listener might understand:

•         Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new in math class. It's difficult, so I'm going to need everyone's undivided attention. Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word "net." Today's lesson is about net.  As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles?  That is the net of the cylinder.

 

Beginners may go through a silent period as they watch and learn and avoid being singled out. They need visuals, actions, tone, inflection, gestures to aid understanding. They may repeat phrases without full understanding...they just need time and practice and opportunities for success.

Resources Necessary for Bilingual/English as a Second Language (ESL) Education http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/edex/docs/StepsUpLOTE.pdf

 

 

Objective 2: TEA expectations

 • Texas Education Agency offers assistance for teachers of ELL/ESL students that outlines the comparison with Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter128/index.html

SLAR and ELAR TEKS

Download the SLAR/ELAR TEKS and compare and contrast the objectives to be taught;   http://www.englishspanishteks.net/   

ELPS (English Language Proficiency Standards)

Texas Education Agency has added training for all teachers in teaching second language English learners. Called ELPS (English Language Proficiency Standards), professional development for meeting those standards in the classroom is fundamental for all teachers in Texas.

http://portal.esc20.net/portal/page/portal/esc20public/ELPS_EnglishLanguageProficiencyStandards

 

Objective 3: History of Language policy

Throughout America's history, factors contributed to the opportunity for other language learners to use their language in public schools and government documents.

History of bilingual education: http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/historyofbilingualed.htm

History of legislation: http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/legislationtimeline.htm

Study the chart on LEP Decisions (next page) and be able to give a brief summary of the process in the quiz me below, using acronyms. Click on Finish to submit your summary. Consult glossary for specifics.* Once you exit out of the program all answers will be lost, so only type your answer in the box and submit when you have completed the entire course.

 

 Toggle open/close quiz question

 

 

Objective 4: Toolkit for planning and implementing learning for ESL/ELL and all learners

Sheltered Instruction is a series of methods and techniques that teachers can use to help second language learners more easily understand and acquire English and content area knowledge and skills. Use a series of methods and techniques to assist learners:

 • Use various questioning strategies to promote higher order thinking skills;

 • Provide sufficient wait time for student responses;

 •Emphasize key words;

Use appropriate vocabulary for students' proficiency level;

Speak at a rate appropriate for students' proficiency level;

•  Exaggerate intonation and gestures for the visual and kinesthetic effect;

•  Pace the lesson appropriately to the students' ability level.

Use short, simple sentences rather than complex ones;

•  Avoid pausing before the end of sentences;

•  Provide frequent opportunities for interaction among students and between teacher and student;

•  Repeat sentences, without using too many different expressions and idioms.

•  Explain idioms and use cognates.

[From Cloud, N., Genessee, F., and Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston: Heinle, p. 80; also found in TEA (Kolak Group and TEA Handouts 25)].

 

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP Model) is useful in planning and coaching lessons to ensure high quality instruction I the content areas for second language learners (Kolak Group and TEA 63).Components include:

» Lesson preparation;

»Building background;

»Comprehensive  input;

»Strategies;

»Interaction;

»Practice/Application;

»Lesson Delivery;

»Review and assessment.

 

In the quiz me below, compare and contrast sheltered instruction and SIOP with strategies learned in Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities course.

* Once you exit out of the program all answers will be lost, so only type your answer in the box and submit when you have completed the entire course.

 

 Toggle open/close quiz question

Activities for ESL/ELL learners: GOOGLE!

 http://www.manythings.org (http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/historyofbilingualed.htm )

 

TESOL Journal: http://a4esl.org

 

Teacher resources: http://www.mcsk12.net/SCHOOLS/peabody.es/ell.htm

 

Web English teacher: http://www.webenglishteacher.com/esl.html

 

Lesson Plans: http://www.rong-chang.com/lsnplan.htm

 

Everything ESL:  http://www.everythingesl.net/lessons

 

Teaching strategies that work: http://teachingtoday.glencoe.com/howtoarticles/english-language-learner-teaching-strategies-that-work

 

Picture cards: TC Closet with ESL Grade 6 packet (have on website)

 

Consult your handouts for:

  » DAM (Differentiation, Accommodations, and Modifications)

  » ESL Strategies

  »Engaging Students

  »EC-12 Reading Stages

 

In the quiz me below compare and contrast strategies for engaging, reading stages, ESL strategies, and working with ESL students. * Once you exit out of the program all answers will be lost, so only type your answer in the box and submit when you have completed the entire course.

 

 Toggle open/close quiz question

 

Objectives 5-8: L1 and L2 language

 

Teaching reading is covered on the EC-6 TExES Content exam. For assistance, see the Put Reading First Booklet available on the TExES prep website.

Teaching ESL to mainstream students.TIF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

page 2.TIF

 

page 4.TIF

 

page 3.TIF

 

13 things.TIF

 

page 5.TIF

13 things, page 3.TIF

page 7.TIF

 

Objective 9: Assessment Models

 

Just as teaching includes modifications, assessments must include a variety of ways to determine student understanding.

 

Union University: http://www.uu.edu/programs/tesl/MiddleSchool/assessment.htm

 

ESL tests: http://www.shambles.net/pages/learning/EnglishP/eslassess

 

Objective 10: ESL Teacher as Student Advocate

 

Teachers advocate for students when progress is not being made and when obstacles keep students from achieving. Knowing students' rights and community resources is important. Contact Communities in Schools at http://www.cisaustin.org  for more information on how they can help students.

 

Approved tests for LEP students: http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/taa/stanprog072009.html

 

Not an advocate:

ESL Comic.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Objective 11: Test Preparation for ESL TExES Exam

 # 104  (may be taken after content exam is successfully completed) 

Visit ETS and study materials for the TExES English as a Second Language exam at http://www.texes.ets.org/assets/pdf/testprep_manuals/154_esl_supp.pdf

»  Examine the four domains to determine skills and facts already known. E.g.: If you have taken and passed the Generalist EC-6 exam, you have mastered fundamental language concepts and structures and conventions of the English language.

 » Additionally, your Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities EDTC 3000 course objectives include ESL teaching methods and planning instruction, formal and informal assessment, diversity, serving as an advocate for students, working with families, and basic reading Language Arts standards. Start with what you know and move quickly to what you do not know. Study materials should prepare you for all aspects of the TExES standards.

 » Go to the Competencies section and briefly study what you know, spending more time on what you do NOT know.

 »  Take the sample exam, check yourself, and determine why you missed questions.

In the quiz me below write your test score, what questions you missed and why you missed them. * Once you exit out of the program all answers will be lost, so only type your answer in the box and submit when you have completed the entire course.

 

 Toggle open/close quiz question

 

 

 Sample Clustered Item Set #1

 

Suggested Approach: First read the stimulus (a description of an ESL teacher's use of literature response groups).

 Read the information below; then answer the two questions that follow.

 As one component of her reading program, an ESL teacher helps her students create and participate in literature response groups in which they can talk about the literature they are reading and share and/or enact favorite passages.

 The teacher also encourages students to record their reactions and questions to their readings in literature response journals. The students share their response journals with their teacher, peers, and families.

 Students also invite these readers to add their own comments and questions to the journal, creating ongoing written dialogues.

 Now you are prepared to address the first of the two questions associated with this stimulus. The first question measures competency 001: The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language.

The teacher's use of literature response groups and journals demonstrates a strong understanding that:

 A. language development is an integrated process.

B. language instruction should emphasize oral development over written development.

C. language development is a sequential process.

D. language instruction should emphasize receptive language skills before expressive language skills.

 Consider carefully the information presented in the stimulus regarding the types of student activities that are involved in the literature response groups. Then read the first item, which requires you to complete the sentence by identifying a fundamental concept underlying the teacher's use of the literature response groups. Look at the response options to consider which option will correctly complete the sentence.

 

Option A suggests that a fundamental concept underlying the teacher's use of literature response groups is that language development is an integrated process. Research in second-language acquisition and current ESL methodologies strongly support the concept that the four language skills or modes (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing) develop interdependently, not as discrete skills. In the stimulus, we see that the students participate in a number of activities related to the literature response groups (e.g., engaging in small-group discussions about the literature they are reading, sharing and enacting favorite passages, creating interactive journals in which they engage in written dialogues with their teacher, peers, and family members regarding their reading). The four language modes are clearly integrated in these activities. Thus, option A represents an accurate completion of the sentence.

 

However, to verify this answer, it is advisable to look at all the response options before marking your answer sheet.

 

Option B states that language instruction should emphasize oral development over written development. With respect to the early stages of second-language acquisition, many experts would agree with this statement. However, if you look at the stimulus and consider the types of activities the students engage in as part of the literature response groups, it is clear that the activities emphasize both oral and written language development. Thus, option B can be eliminated as an accurate completion of the sentence.

 

Option C states that language development is a sequential process. While a person's language knowledge and language skills certainly build on one another throughout the process of language acquisition, most models of language development are based on the concept that language acquisition is an organic, integrated process rather than a sequential or linear process. Also, the language activities described in the stimulus as part of the literature response groups are very much interdependent in nature, not sequential. Therefore option C may be eliminated.

 

Option D states that language instruction should emphasize receptive language skills before expressive language skills. Again, as in option B, while many experts may agree with this statement with respect to the early stages of second-language acquisition, the activities in the stimulus emphasize receptive and expressive language skills more or less equally. Option D is therefore not the best response to this item.

 

Of the four options offered, only option A correctly completes the sentence by accurately reflecting what research suggests about language acquisition as well as accurately corresponding to what is happening in the stimulus

 

Now, does this explanation help you to see why certain answers can be eliminated?

Major Topics to consider:

 • Use of visuals, particularly charts, graphs, semantic maps, diagrams, pictures and illustrations, manipulative; demonstrations; word walls that grow larger during the year;

• Playacting, cooperative groups with heterogeneous students; buddy systems; projects;

 • Learner-centered activities where students have choice;

 • Use of multimedia and technology resources (computers, Internet, video cameras);

 • Student written work, displayed;

 • Culturally diverse resources;

 • Spiraling and scaffolding of instruction;

• Combination of content area topics, to build academic concepts and vocabulary;

 • Emphasis on vocabulary development using color codes, underline, bold, CAPITALIZE, boxes;

 • Use  of concrete examples, specifically using students as examples;

 • Use of open-ended questions, "What do you think?";

 • Student background knowledge;

 • Understanding of vocabulary used for bilingual instruction.

Glossary

 

 

•  academic language: language used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal schooling context; aspects of language strongly associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms or technical language and speech registers related to each field of study (TESOL, 1997).

 •  additive bilingualism: an enrichment process where students acquire a second language with no fear of native language loss or abandonment of their own cultural identity.

 •  BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills; refers to conversational language.

 •  biculturalism: native-like knowledge of two cultures; includes the ability to respond effectively to different demands of these two cultures (TESOL, 1997).

 •  bilingual instruction: instruction in two languages, usually a native and a second language.

 •  bilingual program: enriched program where students learn knowledge and skills in two languages.

 •  biliteracy: capability to read, write, listen, and speak with native-like skill and comprehension in two languages.

 •  CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency; refers to the academic languages of the disciplines.

 •  code-switching: using more than one language interchangeably within the same sentence/conversation.

 •  comprehensible instruction: carefully making instruction understood by using strategies that scaffold language acquisition.

 •  content-based ESL: a model of language education that integrates language and content instruction in the second language classroom; a second language learning approach where second language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing second language, content, cognitive and study skills (TESOL, 1997).

 •  cultural responsiveness: capability to respond to others with consideration, respect, and sensitivity due to an increased awareness of the need to recognize and validate interpersonal/cultural differences. culture: a sum total of the ways of life of a people; includes norms, learned behavior patterns, attitudes and artifacts; also involves traditions, habits or customs; how people behave, feel and interact; the means by which they order and interpret the world; ways of perceiving, relating and interpreting events based on established social norms; a system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting (TESOL, 1997).

 •  developmental bilingual education: attempts to preserve and enhance students' skills in the native language while they acquire a second language (Crawford, 1991).

 •  dual language immersion (DLI): provides instruction in two languages for English speakers and non-native speakers of English; the goals of the program promote bilingualism, biliteracy, high academic achievement, and multiculturalism.

 •  early exit: removing students from supportive and additive bilingual programs at the earliest date possible towards total immersion in the second/target language.

 •  ESL: English as a Second Language; students receive specified periods of instruction aimed at the development of English language skills, with a primary focus to learn the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skill for reading and language arts.

 •  ESL pullout: program that provides language assistance to English language learners by pulling them out of mainstream reading/language arts classes and providing them accommodated English instruction.

 •  ESOL: English Speakers of other Languages; refers to recent immigrant students in high schools in the state of Texas.

 •  FLES: Foreign Language in the Elementary School; provides instruction in a second language to help students reach functional proficiency in all content areas in the targeted language. Listening and speaking the language is somewhat more emphasized than reading and writing. The program emphasizes the learning of the 5 C's: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities.

 •  FLEX: Foreign Language Exploratory; enables students at all grade levels to learn basic phrases in one or more language; develop an awareness and appreciation of foreign cultures; and develop an appreciation of the value of communicating in another language. Although students do not attain any degree of language proficiency, the program motivates students to study foreign language and enhances the students' understanding of English.

 •  foreign language: a language other than an individual's native language.

•  home language: language(s) spoken in the home by significant others (e.g., family members, caregivers) who reside in the child's home; sometimes used as a synonym for the first language, primary language or native language. immersion education: children are taught a second language through subject-matter instruction in that language, with an emphasis on contextual clues and with lessons geared to students' level of competence (Crawford, 1991).

•  language minority: a student who comes from a home in which a language other than English is primarily spoken; the student may or may not speak English well (TESOL, 1997).

 •  language proficiency: the level of competence at which an individual is able to use language for both basic communicative tasks and academic purposes (TESOL, 1997).

 •  learning strategies: mental activities or actions that assist in enhancing learning outcomes; may include metacognitive strategies (e.g., planning for learning, monitoring one's own comprehension and production, evaluating one's performance), cognitive strategies (e.g., mental or physical manipulation of the material) or social/affective strategies (e.g., interacting with another person to assist learning, using self-talk to persist at a difficult task until resolution) (TESOL, 1997).

 •  late exit: developmental bilingual program where students are taught in two languages for the longest time possible, preferably PK-12.

 •  LOTE: Languages Other Than English; division of the Texas Education Agency that coordinates the development of the TEKS and all instructional activities in foreign language programs.

 •  maintenance bilingual education: attempts to preserve and enhance students' skills in the native language while they acquire a second language (Crawford, 1991).

 •  multilingualism: ability to speak more than two languages; proficiency in many languages (TESOL, 1997).

 •  native language: primary or first language spoken by an individual (TESOL, 1997).

 •  one-way dual language: bilingual program where homogeneous groups of students (English language learners) are instructed in the TEKS in two languages.

 •  primary language: first or native language spoken by an individual (TESOL, 1997).

 •  scaffold: providing instructional support/guidance in such a way that students transition from a state of dependence on the teacher to independence.

 •  sheltered instruction: an approach in which students develop knowledge in specific subject areas through the medium of English, their second language; teachers adjust the language demands of the lesson in many ways, such as modifying speech rate and tone, using context clues and models extensively, relating instruction to student experience, adapting the language of texts or tasks and using certain methods familiar to language teachers (e.g., demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers or cooperative work) to make academic instruction more accessible to students of different English proficiency levels (TESOL, 1997).

 •  SIOP: Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol; an observation tool that teachers can use to plan sheltered lessons and to hold themselves accountable for the instructional needs of English language learners in the content areas.

 •  social language: the aspects of language proficiency strongly associated with basic fluency in face-to-face interaction; natural speech in social interactions, including those that occur in a classroom (TESOL, 1997).

 •  structured immersion: all students in the program are English-language learners, usually, though not always, from different language backgrounds; they receive instruction in English, with an attempt to adjust the level of English so subject matter is comprehensible; typically, there is no native language support (August and Hakuta, 1998).

 •  subtractive bilingualism: an erosive process that refers to the gradual abandonment or subtraction of a child's primary language and its cultural accomplishments for English.

 •  transitional bilingual education: provides a portion of instruction in LEP children's native language to help them keep up in school subjects, while they study English in programs designed for second-language learners (Crawford, 1991).

 •  two-way bilingual immersion program: a program in which monolingual English-speaking children study the regular school curriculum alongside children who are native speakers of the target, or second, language; a portion of the instructional day is taught in English and another portion is in the target language; aims for additive bilingualism and biculturalism for all the students involved (TESOL, 1997).

 

  Adapted from the Intercultural Development Research Association's Glossary of Terms at www.idra.org/research/glossary.htm.

 

 Please type your first and last name in the box below and click on submit score to submit answers to all 5 quizzes.