Teaching Reading Skills is a complex series of scaffolding skills taught to students (oral language development, listening, comprehension, phonological awareness, phonics and word study, fluency, and vocabulary). Students age 4 years old, from professional families, have the advantage of hearing 45 million words versus 11.2 million words from working families and 6.5 million words from low socioeconomic families. Positive versus negative statements revealed 1 to 2 (positive versus negative) in low socioeconomic families, 2 to 1 (positive versus negative) in working families, and 6 to 1 positive versus negative statements in professional families. These statistics demand more attention to language-building and intervention.
Students from lower income families often struggle with reading and vocabulary because of an absence of reading materials and specific language development in daily life. Source: Betty Hart and Todd R. Risley. "The Early Catastrophe. The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3," 1995. http://parenting.families.com/blog/studyonvocabularydevelopment
Elementary teachers are well-trained to teach reading in Texas, using specific models and resources. One of the best models comes from the Higher Education Collaborative, the University of Texas at Austin. Listed are key points:
Hougen, Marty, PhD. "Essential Components of Reading Instruction and Supporting Research." The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk, UT, Austin, 2010.