Chapter Nine

Motivation & Emotion
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What is "a motive?"

A motive is a hypothetical state within an organism that propels the organism toward a goal.

Need: a state of deprivation

Drive: a condition of arousal in an organism that is associated with a need.

Physiological Drives are unlearned drives with a biological basis, e.g. hunger, thirst & avoidance of pain. Incentive: an object, person or situation perceived as being capable of satisfying a need.
Theories of Motivation:
Instinct Theory - (called Fixed Action Patterns in animals) - "an inherited disposition to activate specific behavior patterns that are designed to reach certain goals."
  Do humans have instincts?

Freud thought so.  See p. 285.

Eros - the life instinct (survival & reproduction)

Drive Reduction Theory

The view that organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives.

Distinguishes between acquired drives and primary drives, which are unlearned.

Homeostasis - the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state.

Humanistic Theory

From Abraham Maslow - famous humanistic psychologist.

The view that the behavior of people is motivated by the conscious desire to grow.

No sense studying animal motivation. People are special!

Leads to Maslowís Hierarchy of Human Needs. (See Fig. 9.1;
p. 287.)

Cognitive Theory

People seem to be motivated to achieve cognitive consistency and to understand the world.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory says that we seek harmonious beliefs and justify our behaviors in order to make sense of them.

Social-Cognitive Theorists argue that people are motivated by their expectations.

Does thinking give rise to motivation?

Sociocultural Theory

Social influences affect motivation.

Hence, culture-specific motives arise.

E.G. self-actualization occurs within a sociocultural milieu.

Hunger - Primary or Acquired Drive?
Consider the ratís hypothalamus.  See p. 290.

A lesion is a small surgical cut made with a scalpel.

Lesions in the Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN) produce hyperphagia.

Hence, the VMN is the "stop-eating center."

Lesions in the Lateral Hypothalamus (start-eating center) produce aphagia.

How to Calculate Your Ideal Weight
The Body Mass Index (BMI)

Defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in centimeters squared.

Or do it this way:

(weight) X 704 = A

Height in inches, squared = B


Healthiest BMI is less than 25.

The Problem of Obesity
One out of four American adults is obese, i.e. have a BMI of 30 or over.  61% are overweight.

25-50% of Americans are dieting.

Illnesses associated with obesity include: heart disease, diabetes, gout, respiratory problems, apnea, Alzheimer's Disease, and some cancers.

Lots of psychological distress occurs too!

 Factors in Obesity
See p. 292 for weight control methods.
Stimulus Motives
Motives to increase the stimulation impinging upon an organism.

These motives are thought to be largely innate. Animals have them too.

There are lots of individual differences.

Are you a "Sensation Seeker?" See p.296.

In famous Sensory Deprivation Studies at McGill University Sís found sensory deprivation to be boring and aversive.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
(from Leon Festinger) - stresses the importance of attitude-discrepant behavior. Change the behavior and change the attitude!

See page 297.

Effort Justification - the tendency to seek justification (acceptable reasons) for strenuous efforts.

Emotional Arousal
Emotions are defined as "states of feeling that have cognitive, physiological, & behavioral components."

See Table 9.3; page 305.

Three Theories of the Emotions
See Fig.9.5; page 307.
The James-Lange Theory

The Cannon-Bard Theory

The Schachter-Singer Theory of Cognitive Appraisal  (See p. 308.)

What about "Lie Detectors?"
See p. 311
The polygraph is an instrument that measures heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and perspiration.
These are actually measures of autonomic arousal.

Arousal means "readiness to respond."

But do polygraphs really detect lies? (NO!)