Chapter 7-10 Possible Essay Questions:

From book, class, coarse objectives on website



Chapter 7 Essay Questions


1. Differentiate between micronutrients and macronutrients. What elements do the letters CHONPS stand for?


2. Compare autotrophas and heterotrophs with respect to the form of carbon-based nutrients they require.



3. Compare and contrast passive and active forms of transport. Giving examples of each.



4. Look at the following diagrams and predict in which direction osmosis will take place.

a) Use arrows to show the net direction of osmosis.

b) Describe what happens to each cell due to osmosis

c) Is one of these microbes an extreme halophile? Which one?










a) Solution: 1.0% salt

Cell: .5% salt

b) Solution: 1% salt

Cell: 5% salt

c) Solution: 10% salt

Cell: 10% salt




5. a) What is the optimum temperature for humans?

b) What is optimum temperature for pathogens?

c) Why are most pathogens mesophilic?

d) Give examples of mesophilic pathogens.



6. What is the natural habitat of a facultative parasite? Of a strict saprobe? Give examples of both.






Chapt. 7 Coarse Objective Questions


1. Define bacterial growth and how bacteria divide; define generation or doubling time.


2. Describe and give examples of how microbial growth can be measured by cell numbers (direct) or by cell mass (indirect).


3. Describe the physical and chemical growth requirements of bacteria, give examples and effects of each.


4. Distinguish among the terms: 1) obligate (strict) aerobes, 2) obligate (strict) anaerobes, 3) microaerophiles, 4) facultative anaerobes, and 5) aerotolerant anaerobes.


5. Distinguish among the terms: 1) termophiles, 2) mesophiles, 3) psychrophiles, 4) halophiles, and 5) buffers


6. Define growth factors and give some examples.

7. Label and explain the phases of a bacterial growth curve and their relation to generation time.



Chapter 8 Essay Questions


1. Describe the chemistry of two types of enzymes and explain how the apoenzyme forms.


2. Describe the roles played by ATP and NAD in metabolism


3. Name the major ways that substrate-level phosphorylatin is different from oxidative phosphorylatin.


4. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration with fermentation in general , terms of energy yield and final electron acceptors.



5. Define metabolism and contrast the fundamental differences between anabolism and catabolism.

6. Distinguish enzyme and substrate; describe the mechanism of enzyme action in relation to energy of activation and active site.

7. Define coenzyme and discuss the sources of important coenzymes.


8. Describe the enzyme levels within the cell.

Describe constitutive enzymes and regulated enzymes.

9. List and explain the factors in influencing enzyme activity and explain enzyme nomenclature.

10. Describe how (Phototroph)Photophosphorylation, (Chemoheterotroph) Oxidative phosphorylation, and (Chemoheterotroph) Substrate-level phosphorylation generate ATP during metabolism

11. Explain oxidation-reduction and its importance in metabolism, picking out compounds oxidized or reduced.

12. Define fermentation and describe what happens in glycolysis, beginning with substrate and explaining by-products, final products, and Net ATP.


13. Compare the Krebs cycle to fermentation in terms of Substrates, Products, Coenzyme, and Net ATP.

14. Explain the purpose of the electron transport chain.


15. Describe 1) Function of enzymes, 2) Benefits of enzymes on molecules, 3) Environmental effects on enzymes, and 4) Condition of Enzymes after being utilized:


16. What are the classifications of enzyme functions. Describe exoenzymes and endoenzymes functions.


17. Describe the Organic Catabolism cycles of:

1) Respiration

2) Aerobic Respiration - including final acceptor and

3) Anaerobic Respiration including final acceptor.


18. Describe the various forms of energy: Thermal, radiant, electrical, mechanical, atomic, and chemical.


19. Describe the constitutive and regulated enzyme levels within the cell.





Chapter 9 Essay Questions


1. Briefly describe how DNA is packaged to fit inside a cell


2. Describe what is meant b the antiparallel arrangement of DNA


3. On paper, replicate the following segment of DNA:




a) Show the direction of replication of the new strands and explain what the lagging and leading strands are.


b) Explain how this is semiconservative replication. Are the new strands identical to the original segment of DNA?


4. Explain the following relationship: DNA formats RNA, which makes proteins.


5. What message does a gene provide? How is the language of the gene expressed?


6. Compare the structure and functions of DNA and RNA.


7. a) Where does transcription begin?

b) What are the template and coding strands of DNA?

c) Why is only one strand transcribed?

d) Is the same strand of DNA always transcribed?


8. Compare and contrast the actions of DNA and RNA polymerase.


9. What are the functions of start and stop codons? Give examples of them.


10. Discuss the roles of exons and introns.


Chapt. 9 Coarse Objective Questions


1. Distinguish between DNA and RNA with regard to chemical composition, nucleotides included in each, location in the cell, and function.


2. Define the following: Genetics, chromosome, gene, genetic code, genetic recombination, codon, nonsense codon, phenotype, genotype, mutation, constitutive enzymes, anticodon.


3. Explain, in detail, how DNA replication occurs. Include DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, primase and ligase.


4. Describe protein synthesis (transcription and translation). Explain the roles of chromosomal DNA, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA in the process as well as how complementary base pairing is involved.


5. Illustrate a hypothetical genetic code by spelling out the nucleotide codons of a segment of m-RNA and indicating the sequence of amino acids that would be coded for in the process of protein synthesis.


6. Distinguish among the three processes of genetic recombination in procaryotes:

a) transformation,

b) transduction, and

c) conjugation.

Describe each process, stating the means of transferring genetic material, the source of the transferred genetic material, and the condition of the donor and recipient cells before, during, and after each process.


10. Define plasmids and discuss their functions



Chapter 10 Essay Questions


1. Define genetic engineering and biotechnology.


2. a) Describe the processes involved in denaturing and renaturing of DNA

b) What is useful about this procedure?

c) Why is it necessary to denature the DNA in the Southern blot test?

d) How would the Southern blot be used with PCR?


3. Define restriction endonuclease


4. Explain how electrophoresis works.


5. a) Briefly describe the functions of DNA synthesizers and sequencers.

b) How would you make a copy of DNA from an mRNA transcript?

c) Show how this process would look, using base notation.


6. What characteristics of plasmids makes them good cloning vectors?


7. a) Identify Two tools used for Recombinant DNA Technology.

b) Identify which tool is most important.

c) Identify 3 ways a desired gene is carried from one cell to another.


8. Give one example of how humans and plants benefit from Recombinant DNA Technology.



Chapt. 10 Coarse Objective questions from website:


1. Define the following:

a. recombinant DNA

b. genetic engineering

c. restriction enzymes

d. gene library

e. Cloning vector

f. PCR


2. Describe DNA probes, giving examples of their use.


3. List the steps that are required in genetic engineering and some applications of this biotechnology.