I. Deuteromycetes or Fungi Imperfecti

Penicillium notatum
p. notatum p.notatum

  • Widely distributed in nature, and is often found living on foods as a contaminant, and in indoor environments.
  • Has been renamed as Penicillium chrysogenum.
  • Reproduces by forming dry chains of spores.
  • Brush-shaped conidiophores.
  • Conidia are blue to blue-green, and the mold sometimes exudes a yellow pigment.
  • It is the source of several β-lactam antibiotics.

Aspergillus niger
a.niger a.niger a.niger

  • Is a filamentous fungi that is found in mesophilic environments.
  • It is not only a xerophilic fungi, but is also a thermotolerant organism, that produces colonies composed of white or yellow felt that is covered by dark asexually produced fungal spores.
  • Mycelial hyphae are divided by a septum and are transparent.
  • It produces citric acid as well as industrial enzymes, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases.

II. Zygomycetes

Rhizopus stolonifer
r.stolonifer r.stolonifer
r.stolonifer r.stolonifer

  • Has a cosmopolitan distribution and is found on bread and soft fruits such as bananas and grapes.
  • Asexual spores are formed within sporangia. Germination of the spores forms the haploid hyphae of a new mycelium.
  • Successful mating results in the formation of durable zygospores at the point of contact. The zygospore germinates and forms a sporangiophore whose sporangium contains both + and – haploid spores.
  • Rhizoids are used for attachment.
  • Pathogen, opportunistic infections of humans (zygomycosis).

III. Ascomycetes

Sordaria fimicola
s.fimicola s.fimicola

  • Is commonly found in the feces of herbivores and is worldwide in distribution.
  • It produces black perithecia containing asci with eight dark ascospores in linear arrangement.
  • S. fimicola in the wild, is dark brown, with a short life cycle, usually 7-12 days.
  • This species is commonly used in genetics classes because of its very strict method of sexual reproduction.

Emericella spp.
Emericella spp Emericella spp.

  • Emericella is very common in tropical and subtropical regions, often isolated from soil, plant and plant material, and food products.
  • Emericella is an ascomycete that produces ascospores, as they reproduce sexually with genetic exchange. The anamorphic state is Aspergillus.
  • Colony color can vary and can include green, yellow, gray, purple and buff. Colony texture is generally velvety.
  • Emericella can cause allergenic and asthmatic reaction in sensitive individuals. It can cause infection in humans and animals particularly in immunocompromised individuals.