Unit 14 Objectives- Detection and Identification of Microorganisms
Textbook Chapter 12
State the common fear that microbiologists have towards molecular
Compare traditional and molecular basis of detection and identification
List 4 classes of microorganisms for which molecular testing is being
developed and whether the testing is DNA and/or RNA based.
List 7 reasons for targeting micoorganisms for molecular testing.
Describe the specimen collection requirements for molecular testing
State the reason that dacron or calcium alginate swabs with plastic
shafts are preferred over wooden-shafted swabs.
List the four considerations which must be taken into account during
State the special considerations in using the following clinical specimens
fo nucleic acid analysis: cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, white blood
cells, serum or plasma, sputum, urine and stool..
List and describe the purpose of six types of controls utilized in
Define "false positive" as it relates to molecular testing
and give two examples.
Define "false negative" as it relates to molecular testing
and give two examples.
Describe the validation process which must be performed on new molecular
based testing brought into the laboratory.
List two sources where one might find the primary nucleotide sequence
of clinically important microorganisms.
Briefly state the importance of target, primer and probe selection
in molecular testing.
List three methods used to detect and identify bacteria.
List six methods for product detection of bacteria.
State the advantages of using real time or quantitative PCR (qPCR).
State the advantage of a multiplex nucleic acid test for M. pneumoniae,
L. pneumophila, B. pertussis and C. pneumoniae.
List the two urogenital tract pathogens which are so well characterized
that molecular testing is now used almost exclusively for detection
and why it is important to have an assay which tests for both organisms.
List the three organisms which can be detected in thin prep vials
collected for PAP smears.
List the two types of antimicrobial agents used and the advantage
of -static over -cidal.
List and describe the three mechanisms whereby microorganisms develop
Describe the genetic changes which occur in drug resistant microorganisms.
List the four reasons for using molecular-based methodologies to determine
antimicrobial drug resistance.
Compare and contrast genotypic and phenotypic methods of identification
of microorganisms, especially as they relate to epidemiological studies.
Given the results of a molecular analysis of microorganism from patient
samples determine the relationship of the microorganisms to each other.
List the five criteria used to evaluat and compare the genotypic methods
for strain typing.
List the three methods for determining the presence of a viral infection.
State the purpose of performing antibody testing during the acute
and convalescent phase of a viral infection.
State the antibody class which is indicative of an acute infection.
List six viruses for which antigen testing is available.
Describe the primary clinical laboratory method used to detet and
identify viruses and include the disadvantage of this method.
Describe the life cycle of HIV and state the HIV group which causes
95% of infections worldwide.
State the two purposes of performing an HIV viral load.
State the clinical significance of a viral load and the purpose it
is used for in anti-retroviral therapy.
State the purpose of genotyping HIV.
Describe the serological testing performed to detect HCV infections.
State the two purposes of performing an HCV test.
State the importance of determining the HCV genotype as it applies
to patient therapy.
List the laboratory procedures used to diagnose fungal infections.
List four fungal organisms which can be identified by molecular techniques.
State the reason molecular technques for detection and identification
of parasites are not common.
List eight parasites for which PCR assays have been developed.
List three reasons why multiplex assays to detect multiple parasites
in stool samples would be useful.