MLAB 2321 Molecular Diagnostics for Clinical Laboratory Science

Unit 14 Objectives- Detection and Identification of Microorganisms
Textbook Chapter 12

  1. State the common fear that microbiologists have towards molecular testing.
  2. Compare traditional and molecular basis of detection and identification of microorganism.
  3. List 4 classes of microorganisms for which molecular testing is being developed and whether the testing is DNA and/or RNA based.
  4. List 7 reasons for targeting micoorganisms for molecular testing.
  5. Describe the specimen collection requirements for molecular testing for microorganisms.
  6. State the reason that dacron or calcium alginate swabs with plastic shafts are preferred over wooden-shafted swabs.
  7. List the four considerations which must be taken into account during sample preparation.
  8. State the special considerations in using the following clinical specimens fo nucleic acid analysis: cerebrospinal fluid, whole blood, white blood cells, serum or plasma, sputum, urine and stool..
  9. List and describe the purpose of six types of controls utilized in molecular testing.
  10. Define "false positive" as it relates to molecular testing and give two examples.
  11. Define "false negative" as it relates to molecular testing and give two examples.
  12. Describe the validation process which must be performed on new molecular based testing brought into the laboratory.
  13. List two sources where one might find the primary nucleotide sequence of clinically important microorganisms.
  14. Briefly state the importance of target, primer and probe selection in molecular testing.
  15. List three methods used to detect and identify bacteria.
  16. List six methods for product detection of bacteria.
  17. State the advantages of using real time or quantitative PCR (qPCR).
  18. State the advantage of a multiplex nucleic acid test for M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila, B. pertussis and C. pneumoniae.
  19. List the two urogenital tract pathogens which are so well characterized that molecular testing is now used almost exclusively for detection and why it is important to have an assay which tests for both organisms.
  20. List the three organisms which can be detected in thin prep vials collected for PAP smears.
  21. List the two types of antimicrobial agents used and the advantage of -static over -cidal.
  22. List and describe the three mechanisms whereby microorganisms develop drug resistance.
  23. Describe the genetic changes which occur in drug resistant microorganisms.
  24. List the four reasons for using molecular-based methodologies to determine antimicrobial drug resistance.
  25. Compare and contrast genotypic and phenotypic methods of identification of microorganisms, especially as they relate to epidemiological studies.
  26. Given the results of a molecular analysis of microorganism from patient samples determine the relationship of the microorganisms to each other.
  27. List the five criteria used to evaluat and compare the genotypic methods for strain typing.
  28. List the three methods for determining the presence of a viral infection.
  29. State the purpose of performing antibody testing during the acute and convalescent phase of a viral infection.
  30. State the antibody class which is indicative of an acute infection.
  31. List six viruses for which antigen testing is available.
  32. Describe the primary clinical laboratory method used to detet and identify viruses and include the disadvantage of this method.
  33. Describe the life cycle of HIV and state the HIV group which causes 95% of infections worldwide.
  34. State the two purposes of performing an HIV viral load.
  35. State the clinical significance of a viral load and the purpose it is used for in anti-retroviral therapy.
  36. State the purpose of genotyping HIV.
  37. Describe the serological testing performed to detect HCV infections.
  38. State the two purposes of performing an HCV test.
  39. State the importance of determining the HCV genotype as it applies to patient therapy.
  40. List the laboratory procedures used to diagnose fungal infections.
  41. List four fungal organisms which can be identified by molecular techniques.
  42. State the reason molecular technques for detection and identification of parasites are not common.
  43. List eight parasites for which PCR assays have been developed.
  44. List three reasons why multiplex assays to detect multiple parasites in stool samples would be useful.

Last Update: April 2, 2015
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