Unit 3 Study Guide

Bio 2420  Intro to Microbiology

R. Rohde


After completing Chapter 13, you should be able to:


1.                  Define the following terms:

a.       Normal flora                                   h.         Symbiosis

b.      Resident flora                                 i.          Disease

c.       Transient flora                                 j.          Adhesins

d.      Opportunists                                  

e.       Commensalism                              

f.        Mutalism

g.       Parasitism


2.                  For each of the following sites, describe the environment and name some of the representative                 microflora found there:

a.       Skin                                                           e.         intestinal tract

b.      Conjunctivae                                              f.          vagina

c.       Nasal cavity and nasopharynx                g.         urethra

d.      Mouth

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3.                  How do commensals benefit/harm us?


4.                  What are our nonspecific surface defenses?  Strutural defenses?  Mechanical defenses?  Biochemical defenses?


Define the following terms:

a.       Infection                             f.          Fomite

b.      Reservoir                           g.         Phagocytosis

c.       Zoonosis                            h.         Surface proteins

d.      Communicable                   i.          Toxins

e.       Vector                                j.          Portal of entry, exit                  



5.                  What are the challenges that face pathogens?  Be able to explain each challenge.


6.                  Describe how pathogens are transmitted by the various means....ie. repiratory droplets, parenteral          means, etc.


7.                  Compare the properties of endotoxins and exotoxins, giving examples of each.

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8.                  Define epidemiology and explain its importance to nosocomial infections.


9.                  Define the following terms:

a.       Epidemic                            g.         Carriers

b.      Endemic                             h.         Morbidity

c.       Pandemic                           i.          Mortality

d.      Acute                                    j.       Attenuated

e.       Chronic                              k.         prophylaxis

f.        CDC                                     l.         Antitoxin


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After completing Chapter 14, you should be able to:


1.                  Define the following terms:

a.       Inflammation                                   d.         Interferon

b.      Chemotaxis                                    e.         Lymphatic system

c.       Complement                                   f.          Oposins


2.                  What are the body's 3 lines of defense? What is the difference between nonspecific and specific defenses?  Name the 4 major nonspecific 2nd line defenses.


3.                  Briefly describe the steps in inflammation.  What are inflammatory mediators...give examples.


4.                  Describe the mechanism of phagocytosis and its role in nonspecific defense.


5.                  Name the 5 kinds of leukocytes and explain their main functions.


After completing Chapter 15, you should be able to:


1.                  Describe the difference between foreign and self antigens.


2.                  Explain the antigen-antibody specificity. 

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3.                  Name the 5 classes of immunoglobulins (Ig), rank, and function of each.


4.                  Explain the role of complement in the immune system.


5.                  Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity.  Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity B include active vs. passive and artificial vs. natural.




6.                  Define the following:

a.       Antibody                            e.         immunology

b.      Antigen                               f.          Haptene

c.       Leukocyte                          g.         NK cells

d.      Opsonins                            h.         MHC

7.        List the types of vaccines and give examples of each.  Compare and contrast active and passive               immunizations.

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After completing Chapter 16, you should be able to:


1.                  Distinguish between immunity and hypersensitivity.  Between immediate and delayed hypersensitivity and provide examples of each type.


2.                  Describe autoimmune diseases, including examples.


3.                  Describe immunodefiecient diseases, including examples.


4.        Be able to list some of the immunological techniques and how they function in the laboratory.


After completing Chapter 17, you should be able to:


1.         Why do specimens need to be taken aseptically even when nonsterile sites are being sampled and selective media are to be used?


2.         Discuss the differences between a genotypic, phenotypic and immunological method of disease identification.


3.         What does seropositivity mean?  A false positive?  A false negative?  Serum titers?


4.         Why is speed so important in the clinical laboratory?  What is a Clinical Laboratory Scientist?

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***Each chapter in the textbook, student study guide, and my website notes section has additional review questions and study hints!!